Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Moderation vs. Extremism

Man is a complex individual. Embodying the gift of life and the challenge of living it, man is faced with challenges brought by the decision he makes in living his life. Through these challenges, he explores his identity and personality. He is able to assess his inherent characteristics, his abilities and skills. The discovery of his potentials will lead him to utilize it in a manner in which he sees fit. The ability to do what he wants in life is attributed to the freedom that he lives.Humans are driven, free, and capable of governing their lives. The need to survive is the challenge that humans continuous to overcome every day. The individual behaves and reacts to the situations and the people around him. He has an idea of what he wants in life and how he should live it to its full potential. Personal reasons such as success or the need for financial resources and a suited career is sometimes included in the reasons why man behaves and reacts towards his surroundings in a certain w ay. All these reasons contribute to what is essential in life, to be happy.It is such a clichà © for people to talk about happiness in the modern times the society now lives in. The information technology era had brought a perception that man is keen to adapt in a fast-paced and complicated life. The modernism ideology has influenced how people thinks and behaves. This can be mostly associated with the need to be famous, or rich. To further understand how man identifies himself with happiness, Socrates’ definition and view regarding happiness can be used to explain how it is. The Greek word â€Å"ethos† is where the word ethics is derived from.Consequently, the word also is defined as â€Å"habit†.(Beebe, 2003) Socrates is one of the several philosophers who explored the definition of habit and character that one must cultivate in order to live. On a greater scale, how should man be and become in this life. Socrates believed that one should settle the definitio n of ethical character as a manifestation of its morality actions.(Beebe, 2003) As an example, when a child discovers his father killed someone, and his father is hunted by the F.B.I, when someone ask him, he would automatically refuse to be truthful about the whereabouts of his father.This is considering the facts that the child admires his father very much and can not imagine his father committing the crime. In that situation, should the child be tagged as a liar and dishonest person, considering the person involved in very dear to him and is a very influential person in his life. Should one doubt the ethical character of the child or understand the reason why he had lied. This is the question that Socrates posted on the idea of ethical values. With the definition of ethics comes the idea of virtue. Virtue is also associated to â€Å"excellence† and can be applied in many aspects of our lives. Socrates posted a question, â€Å"when does someone consider his life to be happ y?† (Beebe, 2003)Beneath the question is the question connecting the idea of virtue and happiness.   Using the definition of virtue, it questions how man can be of his full potential. What can make his life truly happy? In reality, when one person thinks of happiness, it becomes a subjective view on the person’s life. Socrates on the other hand thinks of happiness as an objective feature of one’s life. Socrates also claimed that â€Å"the most important thing is not life, but the good life†.(Beebe, 2003)This statement comes with the idea that the fulfillment of life is the essence of life itself. Happiness is not just the mere smiles and the happy feeling attributed to it, but when everything is wrong, one lives and overcomes it. This is exercised by the ethical and virtuous persons. They consider more of the quality of their lives rather than just the length and living simply the life they ought to live. Understanding Socrates definition of ethics and v irtue, rather than the pursuit of wealth, reputation, prestige and others, one must focus on aspiring to be ethical and virtuous more than anything else.Because these two ideas generates happiness, is a factor of happiness and creates the life with moral quality. Virtue and happiness is both necessary and sufficient to be able to be happy. Being virtuous is necessary to become happy. The idea of living a virtuous life is fulfilling the excellent kind of life a person can fulfill. This is disregarding the material aspirations of one’s life, in return, one gains the ideals of honesty, fairness, and bravery that contributes to the quality of life one lives. These attributes may not give enough material possessions but the morale and quality of life is the result of living the virtuous life.In Socrates famous saying, â€Å"The unexamined life is worth not living†.(Beebe, 2003) To this saying we pose the idea of wisdom and the pursuit of knowledge and reason. Virtuous livin g is having the gift of rationality and the capacity to think critically. The discussion of virtue is also important in the pursuit of happiness. Virtuosity also comes with work. Being virtuous is a process and a pursuit, and together with work, one can achieve happiness. We can therefore say that according to Socrates, one can not be happy without being virtuous, and one can not be virtuous without being wise.BEEBE, J. R. (2003) Socrates on Prozac and Happines., James R. â€Å"Socrates on Prozac and Happines†.   2003. Lecture notes. November 27 2006. .Kalin, J.G., Davis, G.S, and Geisler, N.L. â€Å"Determinism†.   2004. November 27 2006. .

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Brave New World Essay

Imagine living in a world with no mom and dad, and that at any of your sides you see many copies of yourself, and the only society you know is the one made up of some sort of hierarchy where you are not allowed to have any feelings or even think. This is the world depicted in the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. The book was published in 1932, he was looking to provide people a picture of a future perfectionist society full of science and â€Å"happiness†, but this vision somehow became the world we live in now. In the novel Brave New World, Huxley gives us a view of a society that can only achieve stability through fictional happiness. This is an example of a Utopian society that attempted to create a perfect society. At that time, changes in science were becoming frequent and Huxley noticed these changes. With the invention of the assembly line, the Ford Company allowed people to afford cars. Huxley was able to see where these advances in science were leading. When a person thinks of a utopia he or she thinks of a place where everyone is happy, with no diseases, where anger and sadness do not exist. As the motto of this world says â€Å"Community, Identity, Stability. † These three words hang in a sign over the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, this creates and conditions new human life. These words are the slogan for this society. â€Å"Community† means that all persons must work together to maximize the greatest happiness for society as a whole, and it occurs through the artificially implanted ideas of â€Å"Identity† that each person has. Regardless of the hierarchy they have, each person is supposed to be happy with their own identity. And â€Å"Stability† is the ultimate goal of society because only through stability can happiness be maintained and all unpleasant feelings and emotions be eradicated. We are living in a Brave New World society in the present days. In the novel, people were being cloned and their lives had been already planned even before their birth with the use of psychological technologies to control the future behavior. Conditioning, combined with prenatal treatment, created individuals without individuality: each one was programmed to behave the way the government wanted. The citizen’s mind was being manipulated basically through the use of drugs and propaganda. â€Å"The principle of sleep-teaching or hypnopaedia, had been discovered. † He critiques modern government institutions whose power and ideals has slowly inserted into the minds of ordinary people. They teaching the children with some kind of propaganda while they were sleeping, the will play a message that they wanted all those children to know for the rest of their lives. The book was written years ago, really far from our time, but the scary truth is that we are living in the same standards as the world idea of Huxley. Together with the media, our government manipulates us to do what they want. For example, those TV commercials of cell phones that tells us to buy smart phones because they are better and then year after year they come up with improvements that are not real and we buy them because we think they are going to be better but we are just being stupid consumers giving money to those big companies. The government approves this because by consumerism, we generate the need of more therefore, more production, more jobs and will better the economy. This utopian society, had also its benefits. Their liberalism respecting relationship and sex, was not as bad because they had no compromises. the government taught them not to have serious relationships with other people. There were no family values, they encouraged to freely have sex with any person they wanted because sex would make them happy. We can see this, when Lenina tells Fanny that she’s been sleeping with the same guy during four months and Fanny responds â€Å"It’s such a horribly bad form to go on and on like this with one man†¦ have somebody else from time to time, that’s all. † They do not condone exclusivity in a relationship, because that involved feelings of love and family and could lead to a disturbance on their social stability. We can totally mirror this in our present society. For example, few days ago a law gave underage girls the ability to purchase the morning after pill. This liberalism in sexuality is bad in the long run. This is allowing children to start their sexual life earlier, when thirteen year old kids are already having sex, there would be no exclusivity by the time they get married; there will be no family values within our society everything will be just about sex just as it was on the book. But were not responsible for those actions because this was all they knew. They manipulated them since babies so they’ll grow up to be a part of their caste and to do what that caste was supposed to do and be happy with it, therefore be more productive in society. Even though, this world was depicted as perfect and everyone seemed to be happy with their lame controlled lives, there were people that were really affecter with the ideals. For example, alpha Bernard Marx, he was a quiet guy that like to use soma (their cocaine-like drug) seemed to be in love with Lenina, he wanted something more than sex from her, but she was know pretty much as a slut, because probably half of the men in the conditioning center had slept with her and he is disgusted to hear the men in the elevator talk about Lenina as though she were meat. People in our society would look upon Brave New World; we would see it as a place of immoral behavior and obscenity. This could this possibly be because they were conditioned to all that and cannot realize it. They could just as easily be conditioned into thinking that only their thoughts are correct. Everyone’s goal in every culture is to reach a state of ultimate happiness. The society of Brave New World is just the same, but they go in different way by manipulation on actions, feelings and reproduction. There’s no need to sacrifice personal desires for the greater good. I think that what will make us really happy is the ability to freely make decisions about our own behavior and life, rather than relying on our society standards and what the government wants us to do. As an individual, I enjoy making my own decisions about what I want to be and about my sentimental relationship. I think anyone would want to strive to reach their full potential when they have the opportunity and freely reach their maximum happiness.

Monday, July 29, 2019

An explanation of various marketing terms

An explanation of various marketing terms is the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using marketing middlemen.†Direct Marketing† is the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using marketing middlemen. Direct marketing implies marketing to the consumers directly without secondary media such as TV commercials. Direct Marketing includes the distribution of fliers, displaying signs such as â€Å"weekly specials† inside the store. It is used to target customers who cannot resist a good deal or bargain. Some Direct marketers use their customer database to contact them for special offers. They tailor their marketing offers and communications to the needs of individual buyers. Direct Marketing is generally used by small to medium size companies that do not have the budget for expensive commercial. There are many forms of direct marketing. The major types are as follows: Direct mail – the adverti ser contact prospective customers by sending some form of advertisement through the mail. Music and book clubs, magazine clearing house, and credit card companies make use of direct mail. Catalogue marketing – companies mail catalogues to consumers and to businesses or make them available at retail stores, and consumers make their purchase from the catalogues. For example, Sears and Canadian Tire’s catalogue shopping. Catalogue retailers appear well suited to operating on the internet as they has the systems and distribution experience required for such an undertaking. Telemarketing – using the telephone and call centers to sell directly to prospects and existing consumers. Companies use call centers for Inbound (receiving calls from customers) and outbound (initiating calls to prospects and customers) telemarketing. Direct marketing has been a major growth area in retailing. Its advantages related particularly to its ability to direct the marketing effort to th ose consumers who are most likely to respond positively. It also offers products and services in a way that is most convenient for the consumer. 2. _____ consist(s) of a collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade. â€Å"Sales promotions† consist of a collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade. Sales promotion as tools and techniques used to stimulate demand, encourage purchase or sales of a product or services, reward royal customers and attract switchers from competitors,. Advertising provides information on a product or promote a brand. Sale promotion offers reasons to buy now. Here are a few examples of sales promotions: Coupons delivered in the newspaper offering discount on your favourite coffee. An e-mail from offers free shippi ng on your next purchase over $35. Sales promotion uses different mix of promotional tools designed to stimulate customers to buy a product. There are two categories of sales promotion tools: The consumer promotions tools – aimed at consumers directly such as; price discount or same price for the twice the amount of the product, discount coupons, cash refund from the manufacturer, patronage rewards such as doubling the amount of air miles, sweepstakes such as possible chance to win a trip to Disneyland and free gift, getting something from the purchase.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Strategic management Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Strategic management - Research Paper Example a continuous process that controls and evaluates the business organization and the industries, which it involves, makes competition assessment and sets strategies and goals to enable it meet all potential and existing competitors. The business organization, then reassesses each employed strategy quarterly and annually (regularly) to evaluate its implementation to determine whether it is successful or they are need of replacement with a new strategy, which will meet charged circumstances, new economic environment, new technology, new competitors, and new financial, social, or political environment (Adair 50). Attaining a competitive advantage and enhancing business performance relative to its competitors are the core objectives of a business organization. This paper purports to discuss how strategic management can affect business organization. Strategic management depends on the size of the business organization and its environment’s proclivity to change. This means that a global transnational business organization needs to employ more structured strategic management approach, due to the large size, operations’ scope, and encompass views and requirements of its stakeholders. Most of major management theories emphasize that private business organizations can exercise choice of strategy (Adair 52). The manner and way in which they face strategic issues may affect the overall development and growth of the business. Additionally, strategic management must address fundamental aspects such infrastructure constraints, resource base, appropriate technology level, and input of raw materials. In terms of strategic planning functions, one can define it as an action employed by a business organization to achieve a superior performance in order to maximize its profits. Strategic planning is a part of strategic management, which assists a business organization to be able to determine the actions and decisions that are extremely important than others (Bryson 70). This

Compare and contrast Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Compare and contrast - Essay Example It involves a group of people, who do the crime in a professional manner. These are criminals who depend on illegal or unlawful activities as their way of life, (Albanese, 2010). These crimes are coordinated and preplanned from a centralized syndicate. It happens to be an ongoing conspiracy where groups engage in illegal or illicit ventures with a sole aim of generating income. These groups have structures which resemble business with a pyramid hierarchy. It involves practicing heinous acts so as to maintain the external and internal control, (Albanese, 2010). These groups can go to the extent of committing murder. These tend to have political wings where they contribute to election campaigns with an aim of securing immunity from arrests. They engage in credit card frauds, gambling and narcotics. Racketeering and smuggling is also common with these groups, (Albanese, 2010). How my perception compares with the definition. My perception of organized crimes does compare with that of the definitions. This is because; in the definitions given here it is clear that planning is involved in the organized crimes. This is the same case in the readings. This also suggests that, in both cases, the nature of crime is not impromptu. It takes a lot of deliberations and sometimes diplomacy can be involved just to secure their interests, (Albanese, 2010). ... This is because activity that leads to violence, theft or even murder are unpopular and by all definitions they are terrible crimes. The idea of having professional criminals is intriguing by itself. It is difficult to imagine that there are people who specialized in crime as a way of living, (Albanese, 2010). However, it is not entirely shocking because there are people who have an uncontrollable desire to do crime. My perception of organized crime is that these are crimes done with a coordinated approach. The same definition appears in the readings. However, the readings reveal that this organization can get quit sophisticated because it is got training involved, and the coordinator are extremely intentional and often technological experts. Characteristics of organized criminal behavior Intimidation and violence Organized criminal gangs always use intimidation and violence to accomplish their goals and intentions. The nature of violence portrayed by these groups can be put into two categories, (Albanese, 2010). They are the tactical and the strategic categories of organized crimes. The strategic category of organized crime involves the use of groups with higher criminal capabilities. This includes careful planning and execution of well coordinated multiple crimes. This could be a way of retaliation against other groups or paralyzing government activates, (Albanese, 2010). On the other hand, tactical category is opportunistic in nature. It is clearly based on short-term goals like retention of a group share in the criminal market. Diversification of criminal activities. Most of these organized groups deal with: narcotics, vehicle thefts and other large-scale crimes, (Albanese, 2010). Their crimes are none—random in nature. Organized

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Sacred Texts, Major Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Sacred Texts, Major - Essay Example Habel, O'Donoghue, Maddox (1993) say that sacred texts of Islam include the Holy Quran where it holds higher than the primary importance in Islam. The second most important sacred text in Islam is Hadith. Quran holds the highest importance as it is firmly believed that Holy Quran is the word of God and these were the words truly revealed on the last Prophet. Muslim all around the world believe the Holy Quran as the most sacred word of God. Hadith is sacred text that holds an importance secondary to the Holy Quran. Hadith is not just one book in fact this is the compilation of many books representing the sayings of the Last Prophet as well as the sayings of the caliphs in that era including many other followers to Last prophet. Gordon (2002) says that the word Quran in the literal sense means "To recite" when the word is looked out for meanings in Arabic language. The word recite is the first command that was delivered to the Lat Prophet by angel Gabriel. Recitation is the fact strongly associated with the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran not only holds a highest authority in all the religious matters for all the Muslims around the world but Holy Quran has also been holding the first priority for consultation in all legal matters. All Muslims believe firmly that Holy Quran is a complete guide for life which not only has the religious matters and issues complied in one book but also the ways to pas life are also present within the most sacred book. Habel, O'Donoghue, Maddox (1993) discusses that it is resolutely held by all Muslims that Holy Quran is a written word of God which is unblemished thus without any errors being perfect in every sense. It is held that the Holy Quran is a flawless record of all the revelations that had been made by angel Gabriel to the last Prophet. The timeline that has been described in texts for these revelation spans from 610 A.D till 632 A.D. It is said that the length of Quran is approximately the same as Christian New Testament having 114 Surahs. The arrangement of these Surahs is from longest Surah to the shortest Surah. Surahs have been classified as Meccan or Medinan and this depends on the Surah's origin. Message in the Quran is spread by means of some literary frameworks and literary devices. There is Arabic text in Holy Quran which is composed of thematic structures that make the reader recall the message. As the text of Holy Quran is considered to be perfect so many scholars regard the Holy text to be the criteria to teach Arabic language. The literary readers believe that Quran has the most rhymed sequence of Arabic language. Moreover the verses of the Holy Quran reflect directness, intimacy thereby asking the reader the same question as to what will be of value after this life. Functions in community Gordon (2002) says that the Muslim community regards the Holy Quran as the word of God and thereby it is the only reliable word to follow to make the dealings in life. Muslims believe that the sacred word has the solution to every problem in life thereby recitation of the Holy Quran can lead to solutions. All the social and the legal issues are considered to be solved by consulting the Holy Quran. Significant features of Muslim tradition Here in this

Friday, July 26, 2019

Admission essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 8

Admission - Essay Example As a certified interpreter of the Saudi Sign Language who worked in various government and private institutions, I have had the opportunity to represent my country at various conferences concentrating on the field of Special Education in the past. This was an opportunity that presented itself to me while I was also training in other Sign Language specializations both in and outside of my country. These training and representative stints allowed me to take on the position of Director of the Deaf Club in Riyadh from 2002 -2004. Aside from my aforementioned accomplishments, I also worked as a Lecturer at the Salman Bin Abdulaziz University in the schools Special Education Department as well as a teacher for the deaf at the Saudi Ministry of Education for more than eleven years. It was only 2 years ago, in the year 2011 to be exact. When I decided to pursue higher academic training in relation to my job description in Saudi. I realized that my work demanded that I achieve a higher level of both Special Education and English language training in order for me to competently accomplish my tasks. it was this need for advanced language training that led me to enroll first at the English Language Institute of Lamar University during the fall semester of 2011. I continue to attend language classes at Lamar alongside 2 additional classes related to the study of the American Sign Language. I completed my studies in ASL1 and 2 at Lamar University as well. I have an ardent desire to attend your university for my graduate studies because of your world renowned expertise in the field of Special Education. With the unparalleled training and mentoring that I stand to gain by attending your university program, I will be able to return to my country armed with the most up to date knowledge and skills in the field of Special Education. I would like to thank you for the time that you have taken to consider my application for

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Household Env Impact Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Household Env Impact - Lab Report Example The experiment was done based on the highest national average of household water consumption --- toilet flushes. It was hypothesized that lesser water can be used to flush toilets as effectively. If the water consumption in flushing toilets can be decreased by a third of the normal use, this could save around 10% of the total household water consumption. The results of the experiment showed that water conservation was 12.5% to 15.5% of the total water usage. Lab Report: An Experiment on Household Water Consumption Introduction According to the American Water Works Association, Americans are the biggest water consumers worldwide. According to the Colorado Water Research Center, the average daily household water consumption is 400-500 gallons, which means that an average person uses around 80-100 gallons of water per day. Some statistics claim that average per capita water consumption is even higher than 150 gallons per day. With all these numbers, the biggest percentage of individual/ household water use --- an estimate of 26% --- goes to flushing the toilet. The next biggest household water consumption goes to clothes washers, which eats up around 22% of daily household water use. The third biggest water consumption goes to showers and baths, which eats up around 19% of daily household water use (U.S. Geological Survey). ... 452 & Willis et al. 1998). Background Water is a valuable source of life. Using water resources efficiently and wisely will help fill the needs of both the private and public sectors. Households, farms, businesses, and industries all need water to survive and flourish (Chimbari et al. 451). Furthermore, water is essential not only to humans, but to all living organisms as well. Everyone, from individuals to large industries, water use should be appropriately shared to avoid water shortages especially in times of fluctuating and limited supplies. Water availability depends on several factors. One of the most talked about issue that affects water supply nowadays is climate change. The rapid and continuous increase in the population also means that more water is consumed even if the supply does not really change. Urban development also means that there are now more paved surfaces that cause a decrease in rainwater absorption by the ground. Water conservation is essential to ensure adequ ate water supply in the future, and everyone can take part in this very simple task (Yung, Tolson, and Burn 252-4). Objective This experiment aims to cut down water supply by approximately 10% by limiting water waste in toilet flushes. Hypothesis If the average household water consumption in flushing the toilet is around 104-130 gallons per day when using a 3-5 gallon toilet flush, then using a 2-gallon flush can cut down this number and save at least 10% of the average household water consumption. Materials A working toilet flush Empty plastic bottle (one 1-gallon or 2 half-gallons) Small pebbles or sand (will fit the mouth of the bottle) Bottle cap/s Chart/table to record water meter readings Clock (or 24-hour timer) Water meter

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Business Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Innovation - Essay Example The companys goals and culture are embedded into the actual design and management of its facilities (Fitzgerald, 2001). For instance, the company’s buildings have large windows, warm colors and fabrics, open floor plans, recreation areas and fitness centers. This enables the company to connect indirectly with its employees while providing an environment that allows for a more productive and interactive workforce. The companys catch phrase too, Connecting People, is symbolic of the culture, which helps define the purpose of its physical facilities. Their culture encourages employee participation through open discussions and debates. Nokia’s culture promotes good communications, which is integrated into every day interaction with and between employees (Nokia, 2006). They have performance-management system, called Investing in People (IIP) involves discussions between employees and their managers, twice a year. They have flexible working hours, study leave and health-care services and recreational activities (HRM Digest). Another company having innovative culture is Procter & Gamble (P&G), America’s biggest maker of household products. There is a shift in P&G’s culture from a conservative, slow-moving, bureaucratic attitude to a modern, fast-moving, internet-savvy organization (CorporateWatch, 2006). They have introduced a new system of attracting the right talents in its fold with a view to make faster and better decisions, cut red tape, reduce costs of systems and procedure while setting more aggressive sales goals. Go, Give and Grow is a scheme that has struck chord with the youth. This scheme gives the graduates the opportunity to make their personal contribution to humanitarian projects before they start their career with P&G (HRMID, 2006). The new graduates selected for employment with P&G get a chance to work for 12 months in a developing country with the World Health Organization (WHO) or Unicef.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Chp 26 dis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chp 26 dis - Essay Example This is because the lawnmower by Sears was a non-inventory collateral because the debtor (Cosmo Fiscante) retained the good. This therefore automatically perfects the PMSI of Sears and hence the Sears have the legal obligation to regain the lawnmower and take it back and not the other creditors who claim it. A Purchase Money Security Interest (PMSI) is a type of legal guarantee for a seller against other creditors in case the debtor becomes bankrupt or is unable to meet his or her obligation. The PMSI is only considered valid if it is perfected by the seller. Perfecting of the PMSI depends on whether the good sold is an inventory or non-inventory collateral. Inventory collateral has to be followed by a notification to the debtor in order for the PMSI to be considered perfected. In the case of non-inventory collateral, no notification is required and once the good is given to the debtor, then the PMSI is considered to be perfected (Miller and Jentz,

Aristotle on the Soul Essay Example for Free

Aristotle on the Soul Essay Aristotle’s notion differs from the usual conception of a soul as some sort of substance occupying the body, existing separately and eternally. To him, the soul is the essence of a living thing. The soul is what makes an organism an organism at all by actualizing its potential for life, and it’s constituted by its capacity for activities essential to that specific type of being. His investigation into the nature of the soul demonstrates basic principles of his philosophical theories at work, including Hylomorphism, potentiality and actuality, and his four causes. His use of these theories in analyzing and teasing out the complexities of the soul make for a cohesive and comprehensive study, easily amenable with his other works. In this paper I will analyze his notion of the soul as described in De Anima, recounting how he came to define the soul, the explanation of the soul, how the souls of different kinds of ensouled beings differ, and his unique concept of how the soul is related to the body. Aristotle begins Book 1 of De Anima by stating that since the soul is a principle of animals, and here I will interpret animals to mean more broadly beings, describing its essence has implications beyond its obvious scope. In unfolding the nature of the soul, it is possible to determine which attributes belong to the soul alone and which belong to the organism in virtue of having a soul (Aristotle, De Anima 402a). So besides exploring the nature of life, his analysis will also seek to answer the question of whether all mental states (of the soul) are also material states of the body, or whether some attributes of the soul are unique to it. In doing so, we are confronted with the interesting implication of Aristotle’s position on the mind/body problem, to which I will get to later on. Returning to the question at hand (what is the soul? ), Aristotle starts his investigation by use of his explanatory theory of Hylomorphism, which states that substances are compounds of matter and form, and change occurs when form actualizes matter (Shields). There are three sorts of substances; form, matter, and the compound of form and matter. Matter is potentiality and form is actuality. Form actualizes matter, which possesses the potential to be what it is. So using Aristotle’s example of a bronze statue, the matter, in this case the bronze, only actualizes it’s potential of being a statue when it acquires the form, or the shape and features. Of interest is the third kind of substance, compounds, which make up living beings. The body is the substance as matter, so the soul is the substance as form or shape. Here we get to Aristotle’s preliminary definition of the soul as the actuality of a natural body having life potentially (Aristotle, De Anima 412). It is in virtue of this form, the soul, that makes an organism alive. Without the soul, the body would only have the capacity for life potentially, and so the soul is the essence (the form) of living things. This preliminary definition is taken a step further when Aristotle identifies the soul as the â€Å"first actuality of a natural body that is potentially alive† (Aristotle, De Anima 412a). He claims that the actuality that is the soul is like the actuality that is knowledge, in that we speak of it in two ways. We can distinguish between a state of knowing x and a state of attending to the knowledge of x, where the latter is more of an active process. The passive of state of knowing x is the first actuality, first because it must necessarily come prior to attending or remembering that knowledge i. e. potential precedes actual. Similarly, the soul of a sleeping person is like the passive state, the first actuality, while the soul of an awake person is like the active state. The soul must be the first actuality, for if not we would be forced to say a sleeping animal lacks a soul, a conclusion we do not want to make (Aristotle, De Anima 412a-412b). First actuality seems to correspond to a capacity to engage in the activity of the second actuality, and in this way is a kind of potential to exercise some function, like the ability to engage in thought. Aristotle makes this clear when he states that, â€Å"If the eye, for instance, were an animal, sight would be its soul† (Aristotle, De Anima 412b). Sight is the capacity of the eye for seeing, where sight is the form and the eye is the matter. The first actuality is the capacity for seeing, and the second actuality is seeing, actively exercising the potential ability. So it seems that beyond defining the soul as the ‘first actuality of a natural body that is potentially alive’, we can say the soul is a set of capacities that characterize living things. These characteristic capacities are different in different beings, and we will see that it is by these that Aristotle creates his hierarchy of ensouled beings or the degrees of souls. I will return to this distinction later in this paper, when describing how the souls of different ensouled beings differ. At this point we have a definition of the soul, but as Aristotle stresses throughout his various works, we must determine the cause or explanation in order to truly grasp the essence, and therefore get at complete picture of his view of the soul. The definition just given explains the what, but a full account must explain the why. He states in the Physics, â€Å"for our inquiry aims at knowledge; and we think we know something only when we find the reason why it is so, i. . , when we find its primary cause† (Aristotle, Physics 194b). His criteria for an adequate definition, one that is sufficient for knowledge, rest on his theory of causation and explanation. The four causes include the material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final cause. Material cause is what something is made of, the formal cause is the form or pattern of which a thing is what it is, the efficient cause refers to the agent of change or rest, and the final cause is the intended purpose of the change or the reason why a thing is done (Shields). We must, therefore, determine why the soul is what it is in virtue of these four general causes. The soul is the principle and the cause of the living body, for it is in virtue of the soul that the body is alive, and thus it plays an explanatory role. It is the cause of the living body in three of the four ways, as â€Å"the source of motion, as what something is for, and as the substance of ensouled bodies†(Aristotle, De Anima 415), corresponding to the efficient cause, the final cause, and the formal cause respectively. It is the source of motion in that it causes growth and decay in the organism. The soul is also the cause of the living body by being the final cause, as the body is merely an organ for the sake of the soul, aimed at the soul. And finally, the soul is the formal cause of the living body for it causes life by being the form and actuality of what is potentially. The body makes up the fourth cause, the material cause, by being the matter that makes up a living organism (Aristotle, De Anima 415). I will use Aristotle’s example of the nature of a house as described in Book One, when he is discussing the importance of form, in order to better illustrate the necessity for analysis of a concept under his theory of causation and explanation. To merely define a house as stones, bricks, and timbers, is not to capture its full essence. A house is stones, bricks, and timbers (material cause), built into an enclosed structure (formal cause), fashioned together by a carpenter (efficient cause), in order to provide shelter from the elements (final cause). We can describe the what, but without further details about the explanation, we don’t really know the nature of a house. Similarly the soul is why, it gives the explanation for, the life activities of a living body. At this point Aristotle’s notion of the soul is quite clear; it is the first actuality of a natural body that is potentially alive, it is a set of capacities for life-giving and defining activities of organisms, and it is the form, the source of motion, and the means (it directs) to the end of the living body. Souls of different living beings are differentiated by their capacities to engage in the activities characteristic of that type of organism, which comprise their livelihood and survival. It is these differentiating faculties that make up the soul. Among these faculties are the nutritive and reproductive, perceptive, locomotive, and the capacity for thought and understanding. Aristotle claims, â€Å"the soul is the principle of the potentialities we have mentioned—for nutrition, perception, understanding, and motion—and is defined by them† (Aristotle, De Anima 413). There are three types of souls, arranged in a nested hierarchy, so the possession of a higher soul entails possession of all that are below it. The lowest, or most basic, in this hierarchy is the nutritive soul. All living things possess the capacity for self-nourishment, for without this they would not live. Next is the sensitive soul, which is possessed only by animals. The highest type of soul is the rational soul, belonging only to humans. These three souls are differentiated by their function, corresponding to the ensouled being in possession of the soul with the power to exercise that function. While the animal soul possesses the nutritive and the sensitive, and the human soul the rational as well, each has but one unified soul with a various sets of capacities (Shields). The nutritive soul is the potentiality held by all living things to preserve it and equip it for life. The function of this soul is the use of nourishment and generation, or reproduction. Generation is the most natural function, as it is a means for a living being to participate in the future (the â€Å"everlasting and divine†) by producing something else of its own sort. The use of nourishment allows the being to preserve itself, only existing while it is nourished. Nourishment allows an organism to grow as well as decay, according to its form. Since all living things possess the nutritive soul, all living things have the capacity for self-nourishment, growth, decay, and for reproduction. Further, since all nourishment involves digestion, and digestion involves heat, all beings contain heat (Aristotle, De Anima 415-416). The sensitive, or perceptive soul, distinguishes plants from animals. Perception is a type of alteration, in that a suitable sense-organ in perception is affected or changed by an external object. The external object acts as the agent, possessing the qualities in actuality that the sense-organ possesses potentially. Aristotle describes that it is through an intermediate condition, such as air, that sense organs receive the forms or qualities of the objects of perception, not the matter, when involuntarily acted upon by the external object. Thus, the sensitive soul has the capacity to receive sensible forms, resulting in perception. The sense-organs become like the agent after being affected, or receiving the qualities (Shields). Again, we can see Aristotle returning to his theory of Hylomorphism in describing perception as the change in the sense-organ as a result of the acquisition of form. The potential of the sense-organ is made actual in virtue of the external object which possesses the form in actuality. Aristotle states that every animal has the sense of touch, but not all possess the sense of sight, hearing, taste and smell. Animals are further distinguished along these lines; while each possesses a nutritive and a sensitive soul, there are various degrees of complexity of the latter soul corresponding to the activities of the animal. Aristotle continues further that the possession of the perceptive soul implies that the animal has the capacity to desire, and desiring includes appetite, emotion, and wish. He also determines possession of this soul entails the ability to feel pleasure and pain and it is in virtue of this soul that some animals possess the power of locomotion (Aristotle, De Anima 413-415). The rational soul, perhaps the most difficult section to interpret of De Anima, is essential and indicative of humans alone. It is in virtue of the rational soul, the intellect, that we come to know and understand things. The intellect is the seat of thought and thus reason. Thinking is similar to perception, as it involves the reception of form by a suitable capacity. However, while the object of perception is external and is the composite of form and matter, the object of thought is within the soul and is form alone (Shields). While hard to follow, I believe the objects of thought are the forms of forms; they get their intelligible forms in virtue of the sensible forms sensed in perception. Aristotle discusses the concept of â€Å"appearances†, which are different from perceptions and beliefs, for appearances exist while we sleep, with no external stimuli actualizing the ‘sensation’, and beliefs involve conviction, while appearances do not. Appearances are images resembling objects of perception (Aristotle, De Anima 428). It is helpful to think of appearances as the representation of reality we see in imagination. I believe Aristotle is claiming that it is these appearances that are the objects of thought. In intellection, the mind is made to be like the object of thought through reception of its intelligible form. The intellect is pure potentiality, it potentially has all of these objects of thought, and only in thought do these intelligible forms become actualized in the mind (Shields). As Aristotle’s philosophical worldview rests on a Hylomorphic principle, it is difficult to see how the alteration, bringing the intellect from potentiality to actuality in thought, comes about. In perception, this is in virtue of an external object that acts as an agent for change in the sense-organ. But what is the agent of change in intellection? Aristotle divides the intellect into the active and passive intellects. The active intellect acts as the agent of change; when the mind thinks the active intellect actualizes the intelligible forms in the passive intellect. The passive intellect stores the concepts of knowledge and intelligible forms in potentiality, to be recalled by the active intellect during thought. This means however, that the actual must precede the potential, contrary to what was discussed above. The nature of the active intellect is its activity, so it must be unremittingly active in order to cause the passive intellect to act and us to have thoughts and reason. If it is continuously active, this part of the rational soul must be eternal and thus stands in stark contrast with the rest of the souls Aristotle posits, but this controversial point is something I will not take up in this paper (Shields).

Monday, July 22, 2019

Sports and gamesan essential part Of Essay Example for Free

Sports and gamesan essential part Of Essay Sports is something that attracts every person in this world towards itself. Sports has become a very common field that everybody has interested in. People are gaining more and more interest in different sports from all over the world. And that is why sports engineering is gaining significance and recognition. It is a special field of engineering, which involves everything from the development to the testing of the different sports equipment. The discipline includes numerous activities and everything related to sports and sports equipment. The sports engineers have several responsibilities that are discussed here at length. The very first responsibility of a sports engineer is the designing of the sports equipment. With the development of different sports and an increase in their popularity, people are eager to make use of the best of the sports equipment. And this is where the sports engineers can contribute by developing new equipment that would help the athletes perform better. Sports engineers are also responsible for carrying out a complete lab and experimental testing of the sports equipment, athletes and the interaction between them. This is one of the most important parts of the job of a sports engineer because it is not possible to make use of anything without testing the equipment and the nature of interactions the users would have with the equipment. The sports engineers not only carry out laboratory testing but are also required to test the performance of the athletes and different devices in the field, i. e. the environment of the sports. Field testing needs to be completely accurate so that there is no scope of mistakes and the athletes are prepared to use their equipment in the real conditions and situations. Computational modeling has been used only for scientific purposes till now. Computational modeling approach is usually employed in physics and other scientific applications, whether it is fluid dynamics or any other experiment. Sports engineers are also making use of this technique and approach for determining the forces acting upon the working of the equipment and for stimulating its working before actually developing them. Sports engineers also need to continuously work with the different government bodies and the authorities for making sure that the rules are adhered to and everything is carried out within the pre-defined guidelines. Sports engineers also have to work with the athletes to regularly keep a track and improve the performance of the different athletes in different fields. They need to find out new ways and measures for enhancing the performance of the sportsmen. Thus, we see that sports engineers are extremely important people and they need to carry out all of their responsibilities sincerely for the development of different sports and for the betterment of the athletes. Reference link: http://classof1. com/homework-help/engineering-homework-help.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Argument Of Contingency Theories

The Argument Of Contingency Theories Organizations operate in many different environments and it is vital to assess how they influence their structures. Effective and efficient organizing has become increasingly important in the modern world characterized by rapid changes. Contingency approaches emphasize that in order for organizations to succeed they must adopt a structure suitable for the environment in which they operate. Two types of theories are referred as contingency theories: theories of organizational structure and theories of leadership. In general, contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that state that there is no best way to organize a corporation and the organizational structure of the company. An organizational or leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Therefore, the best way of organizing the company, is contingent upon the internal and external situation of the company. External environments influence organizations in a varied number of ways. Critical external factors include, but are not limited to, the size of the organization, labor markets, availability and cost of capital, competitors, governmental laws and policies, ecological concerns, managerial assumptions about employees, strategies, technologies used, etc. The main ideas of contingency theory are: There is no one best way of organizing or managing the company Organizations are open systems that need careful management to satisfy and balance internal needs and to adapt to environmental circumstances Different types of organizations are needed in different types of the environment Different approaches to management may be necessary to perform different tasks within the same organization Effective organizations not only have a proper fit with the environment but also between its subsystems Several contingency approaches were developed simultaneously in the late 1960s. The emergence of the theory was the result of criticisms of the classical theories such as Webers bureaucracy (Weber, 1946) and Taylors scientific management (Taylor, 1911) which had failed because they neglected that management style and organizational structure were influenced by various aspects of the environment: the contingency factors. The contingency approach originated with the work of Joan Woodward (1958), who declared that successful organizations in different industries with different technologies were characterized by different organizational structures. In this essay I will discuss three influential contingency theories, those of Burns and Stalker (1961), Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), Fiedler (1967) and I will try to assess the relevance of contingency approach in organizations today. Tom Burns and Graham Stalker in their book, The Management of Innovation (1961) studied about 20 Scottish and British electronics companies operating in increasingly competitive and innovative technological markets. Their findings demonstrated that organizations operating in stable environments are very different from those which have to face a changing and dynamic environment. The authors have discovered that differences in the way firms approached change and innovation related to the values and mission of the firms. Burns and Stalker classified the firms into 2 categories on the basis of their managerial structures and practices: mechanistic and organic. The authors found that mechanistic organizations are similar to bureaucracies and suited for relatively stable environmental conditions. Such organizations are clearly programmed, strictly controlled and hierarchically structured. Often they do not have mission and vision statements, and instead depend on established rules for guidance, measuring success by the degree to which staff conforms to process and procedure. Organizational tasks are typically broken down into specialized activities. Individuals are responsible for their specific functions in a relative isolation from the overall organizational goal. The organic organizations are appropriate in unstable, turbulent, unpredictable environments. Organic organizations are orientated towards results, have a flat organization structure instead of a hierarchy, and little structure in terms of process and rules. They focus on results and employees receive positive rewards for creative and pragmatic contributions. Given these conditions it becomes necessary to review and redefine the responsibilities, methods, inter-role relationships, and even goals on a continual basis. Burns and Stalker emphasized that each system is appropriate under its own specific conditions. Neither system was superior to the other under all situations. Since the 1960s much of writings in organization theories field is a constant debate between the machine/organ analogies, and attempts to develop growth models of how simple mechanistic forms can grow into the more complex organic forms. Another significant study to demonstrate the relationships between environmental characteristics and effective organizational structures was conducted by Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch (1967). They studied ten US firms in three industries (plastics, food, containers) that confronted varying degrees of uncertainty, complexity and change. The researchers found that successful firms in each industry had a different degree of differentiation. The firms operating in uncertain, complex, rapidly changing environments had more highly differentiated internal structures such as sales, production and RD departments. Such organizations require the greater need for suitable mechanisms for integrating and resolving conflicts between various segments. Successful firms in more homogeneous and stable environment were more formalized and hierarchical in their forms. Authors concluded that in order to succeed firms must have internal structures as complex as environments in which they operate. This seminal work of Lawrence and Lorsch refined the contingency theory by demonstrating that different markets and technological environments require different kinds of organizations, and that subunits or functional departments within an organization might be managed in different ways, due to variations resulting from their sub-environments. Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. These influences include motivating subordinates, budgeting scarce resources, and serving as a source of communication. Contingency theories of leadership argue that no single leadership style is effective in all circumstances, but the leadership styles are contingent on the organizational and situational context. Fred Fiedlers theory (1967) is the earliest and most extensively researched is also known as contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Fiedlers ideas, originated from trait and behavioral models, underline the importance of both the leaders personality known as leadership style and the situation in which that leader operates situational favorableness. Fiedler was the first theorist who said that leadership effectiveness depends on the situation. The leadership style is the consistent system of interaction that takes place between a leader and work group. In order to classify leadership styles, Fiedler has developed an index called the Least-Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale. To get an LPC score a leader is asked to think of co-workers with whom he/she has ever worked and choose the one with whom the work was the most difficult. Then this person is rated on a number of eight-point bipolar scales (friendly/unfriendly, hostile/supportive, etc.). The responses are then summed and averaged: high LPC scores are interpreted as an indication of human relations orientation of a leader, while low LPC scores show a task orientation. The situational favorableness is a measure of the degree to which the situation of the work group affects the leaders ability to influence group members. Fiedler then extends his analysis by focusing on three key situational factors, which are leader-member, task structure and position power. In leader-member relations Fiedler states that leaders will have more influence if they maintain good relationships with group members who like, respect, and trust them, than if they do not. Fiedler determines the task structure as the second most important factor in structural favorableness. He argues that highly structured tasks, which specify how a job is to be done in detail, provide a leader with more influences over group actions than do unstructured tasks. Leaders, who are authorized to hire and fire, to discipline and reward, have more power than those who do not. For example, front office manager has more power than a room clerk. By classifying a group according to three variables, it is possible to identify eight different group situations or leadership style. According to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. Both low-LPC (task-oriented) and high-LPC (relationship-oriented) leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. Fiedler stated that it would be easier to change the situation (i.e. the work environment) to fit the leaders style. As such, the organization should not choose the leader who fits the situation but should change the situation to agree with the style of its leader since the leaders personality is not likely to change. The following aspects can be considered as strengths of Fiedlers theory: it is predictive and supported by a lot of empirical research; it does not require that people be effective in all situations and provides a way to assess leader style that could be useful to an organization. However, among the theorys weaknesses are the fact that it is cumbersome to use, it doesnt explain what to do when there is a mismatch between style and situation; it doesnt take into account situational variables, like training and experience, which also have an impact in a leaders effectiveness. Finally, the LPC measure has a low reliability and its meaning is unclear, which put in doubt whether it is a true measure of leadership style. Todays organizations are quite complex and there cannot be one correct strategy that works in all situations. The contingency approach stresses the absence of a single best way to manage and emphasizes the need for managerial strategies based in all relevant facts. In other words, each managers situation must be viewed separately, a wide range of external and internal factors must be considered and then the focus should be on action that best fits the given situation. Contingency theory is often called the it all depends theory, because when a contingency theorist is being asked for an answer, the typical response will be that it all depends. While this may sound simplistic, assessing the contingencies on which decisions depend can be a very complex. The appropriate management style and organizational structure depend on the environmental context of the organization concerned. The ability to manage change is now recognized as a core organizational competence. In order to prove the relevance of contingency theory to the modern enterprises I would like to analyze what has happened to the offshore banking industry from 2001 up today and how these changes has influenced to redesign completely the organizational structures of offshore banks and how this change was managed and implemented. Increasing pressure from FATF and OECD on tax evasion issues, anti-money laundering concerns as well as prevention of the terrorism financing from the end of 2001 started to change the environment in which offshore banking was operating. Therefore offshore banks had to adjust their organizational structures and the way these banks have been managed. Increasing importance of the role of compliance processes at offshore banks has changed the organization structures of banks as well as operations processes in the way, where the importance of the compliance departments have become a necessity to survive. Compliance officers have become managers of one of the most important internal processes compliance with the laws and regulations. Therefore now offshore banks operations are centered on the compliance department, rather that business/client management department. This issue in fact is going beyond just offshore banking sector; it has influenced drastic changes of many countries legislation, supervisory and regulation processes as well. So a massive task of reorganizing not just internal organizational structures of banks, but regulating agencies was undertaken in a very short period of time. Those countries and their financial institutions which were able to adapt to the changes rapidly, survived, but entire industries and dozens of banks went out of business because of their failure to act as open systems and balance internal needs and external environmental forces. The change was massive and organizations had to deal with many important issues, interrelated and so interdependent, that in many cases organization have failed to manage the change in order to deal with the following problems: Lack of suitable qualified compliance personnel no professionals available; Lack of appropriate training and educational programs no educational institutions; Increased expenses for appropriate compliance practices lower profitability, dilemma of choice for the CEOs continue as usual to satisfy shareholders needs and create financial benefits for themselves in a short term rather than comply with the demanded change but reduce the performance of the company; Resistance of business departments to accept the necessity of increased compliance interference struggle for power within companies; Insufficient laws and regulations government agencies lagging behind with legislative change, banks had to establish their new internal rules and procedures for compliance; Those offshore banks which where managing their organizations consciously or unconsciously employing contingency theories of organizations, have managed to adopt to the new environment, therefore the relevance of these theories is undisputed to the modern companies, at least in the offshore banking sector.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

All Things Wise And Wonderful :: All Things Wise And Wonderful

All Things Wise and Wonderful James Herriot   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The book I read is called All Things Wise and Wonderful, written by James Herriot. This is the 3rd novel in a chain of five. These novels make a very interesting and famous poem. All Things Bright and Beautiful, All Creatures Great and Small, All Things Wise and Wonderful, The Lord God Made Them All. This poem has all of James Herriot’s book titles. James Herriot was a Scottish veterinarian who lived in Scotland during the time of World War Two. You could say that this book is an autobiography because this really happened to him and he has written it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In this book, James Herriot is at war in England. He is just like any of the other soldiers, doing pushups and working all day. When he has days off he likes to do his first career. This is as a veterinarian. He lives in Yorkshire, England and he goes to farms and people’s houses any time he can, just to help their animals.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It all starts with him at war, nothing real scary, just attending his regular duties. He seems to be very worried about his teeth because he is terrified of dentists. So he keeps his teeth in â€Å"tip top† condition. The Army was very strict about hygiene. Then he goes on about how he likes gentle dentists. In the beginning of this exceedingly interesting book he starts to talk about women. He says that he likes women better than men, and I agree, because at this time in the English Army there where more men than women. The men would not stop cussing and yelling and acting like slobs. He missed the comfort of women.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  James Herriot became a veterinarian because of his love for all the animals on this earth. He loves all animals and he knows how much an animal such as one out of twelve cows is worth to a farmer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  An incident that I found interesting in the book was when he went to a Gray Hound race. He was the substitute vet. He was given the orders to take out any dog that did not look fit to run.

The Human Genome Project Essay -- Science Genetics Essays

The Human Genome Project On the brink of the 21st century, genetics is paving the way into a brave, new world where the discoveries being made will bestow upon us tremendous powers and possibilities that are restricted only by our imaginations. Many things long considered "science fiction" are well on their way to becoming reality. Advancements made by the Human Genome Project give us the ability to alter our own destinies along with those of our descendents. However, along with the benefits of increased control over our lives come the uncertainties: Will humankind choose to draw boundaries in regards to genetic choices? Where will those boundaries be? How will this affect our future? Could our deepened knowledge of the power of genetics threaten the biodiversity essential to evolution? Would we, in essence, be "playing God"? One thing is certain- life, as we know it, will never be the same (Rayl, 112). Before one can speculate intellectually about the benefits and uncertainties of genetic study, it is important to understand how we, as humankind, have reached this breaking point of science. The HGP began in 1990 as a 15-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. It is expected to be complete by 2003, two years ahead of schedule, due to rapid technological advances. The overall goals of this project are to catalog the estimated 80,000- 100,000 genes in the human DNA and to determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical bases that make up the human DNA. This new information will then be stored in databases, as geneticists then develop tools for its analysis. Finally, the HGP is to address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the genetic research (... ...ty, must agree upon a set of rules and standards that will govern the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding the final outcome of the project. Clearly, we must do it quickly. References 1- Rayl, A.J.S., et al. "Genetics in the New Millennium." MINNESOTA MONTHLY. Aug., 1999:112- 124. 2- Human Genome Project Information. Obtained 20 Oct., 1999: 3- "The Future is Now." TIME magazine international. 8 Feb., 1999:VOL. 153 NO. 5. Obtained 20 Oct., 1999:,3266,20825,00.html. 4- Associated Press. "Unregulated gene testing can be faulty." Star Tribune. 21 Sept., 1999. 5- Holtzman, Neil and Shapiro, David, et al. "Genetic Testing and Public Policy." British Medical Journal. 14 March, 1998: 316(7134). Obtained 17 Nov., 1999:

Friday, July 19, 2019

Fosters Accounting Assignment :: essays research papers

I.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Founded in 1888, Foster’s group is the result of a long history of amalgamations. Nowadays, regarded as a premium global multi-beverages company, Foster’s group possesses three main operating arms: Beringer Blass Wine Estate, Carlton and United Beverages, Foster’s Brewing International. The group delivers premium branded beers, wine spirits and entertainment products. With US$5.2 billion in total operating revenue, Foster’s group’s operates in Australia, New Zealand, China, California, Italy, Chile, Vietnam, India and Fiji. Besides, its products are sold in over 150 countries around the world. The report has analyzed the financial performance and financial stability of Foster’s Group over a three years period that is from 2002 to 2004 included. The Ratio Analysis technique was used to conduct the report. Therefore, comparison with industry averages and Coca Cola Amatil supplemented the analysis to complement the results. In 2002, it was found that profitability had increased significantly compared to 2001, this was mainly due to Foster’s group policy in expending its distribution and sales worldwide and Forster’s European partnership which increased its income. However, 2003 showed smaller profitability than 2002 mainly due to a non profitable foreign exchange rate, tough competition in California, adverse trading conditions in the US and the impact of global events restricting travels, tourism and leisure activities (Swan, 2003: 5). Foster’s group did however generate greater amount of operating cash flows, and made a considerable amount of acquisitions. In 2004, Profitability ratios did however increase but that was due to the selling off of ALH (Australia Leisure Hospitality) that generated $1.5 billion, â€Å"Excluding the impact of significant items, net profit after tax was $469.4 million, a decrease of 17.4% over the previous year’s result† (Foster’s Audit, 2004:61). On the three year basis, when compared to the industry averages, the stability ratios are actually lower, but when they are compared to Coca Cola Amatil the ratios are actually similar and even a bit higher. Due to the accumulation of consistent profits over the years, both companies do not need as much financial leverage as other companies would, which reflects the stability of the company. In fact, those companies rely more on equity than debt to generate their assets. Overall, Foster’s group is a relatively stable and performing enterprise. The results show that Foster’s performance and stability have moved in accordance to outside world events. However, the company continues to maintain its position as a leading group in the beverages industry. II.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  QUALITY, SCOPE, USEFULNESS,FORMAT AND READABILITY OF THE MOST RECENT ANNUAL REPORT.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

A Farewell to Arms Film vs Text Essay

Put Out on the First â€Å"Date†: The Selective Representation of Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms The deeply philosophical work of Ernest Hemingway was taken under artistic license and possibly political agenda when it was produced in film. In A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway paints, with broad strokes of disillusionment, over the ideals of honor, war and love as a preoccupation or distraction from the realities of life. The reader is left with the impression of the constant human drive to distract itself whether with alcohol, violence, anesthesia or passion. But the film focuses on the love story and the trials it faces through a backdrop of faith and war. The alterations made in the representations of the characters, love and war leave the viewer with only a hint of the deeper questions presented in the novel. Lieutenant Frederic Henry is portrayed in novel as a generally well disciplined, reserved and good natured. He did not partake in the teasing of the priest despite his lack of faith and even endeavored to mollify any perceived slights with the man. Henry could never muster any reason for joining the Italian army other than just being in Italy at the time and speaking the language. He does not feel any particular allegiance, even having the opinion that, â€Å"It was impossible to salute foreigners as an Italian, without embarrassment† (Hemingway 23). Henry just doesn’t seem to care one way or the other which army he was a part of so long as the action would distract him from anything else. In the novel, he assists a man trying to get away from the front line, grows attached to a woman because she is there, becomes an alcoholic, and shoots men in his command because they wouldn’t help with the retreat. And yet these actions were permissible in the fact that they were a result of his circumstance and not his character. He was presented to the reader as a man ever looking for something to occupy his mind and body from reality. In the film however, all of these actions were cut out except for the ones involving Catherine. An entirely different character is established when he brushes aside the feelings of his friend when he obstinately steals Catherine’s attention from him and proceeds to deflower her in a church courtyard. Catherine was not as altered in the transition to the silver screen, other than the omission of her initial recollections of her dead fiance and her deception and going off pregnant and on her own when Henry must return to the front line. The complications that were involved with the development of her character in the novel slightly mistranslated in the film as seeming as though she was constantly living in a dream world, refusing reality. While she certainly was not alone in her delusions of enduring happiness in the text, she was portrayed as alone in the film for most of her pregnancy. In the novel there was constant discourse with Henry as the two of them were away in the country or sequestered away in some hotel room. In the film there is a hint of feminism when Catherine’s friend Ms. Ferguson complains about the current role of women in the war and her reoccurring dismay on her own loneliness. The role of women was going under a reconstruction, though not as hot a topic it would become after the Second World War. The war, itself, is incredibly downplayed in a total screen representation of perhaps ten minutes. The simplistic but enthralling manner in which Ernest Hemingway writes his chapters regarding the war effort are completely thrown away in order to film a romance. There is camaraderie among the soldiers and an active lifestyle that Henry misses while he is away with Catherine in the country. The war was not something that this industry was trying to sell; it was trying to promote it as a needless obstacle to happiness where the novel simply presented it as a function of man. When reading this novel, the idea of love fell into the same ideals that Henry found empty and overused. But, the film portrayed the romance as a definite and overpowering thing. In the text, this couple was simply juxtaposed and a romance ensued. There was a war going on and people were dying. That hovering reality drives a person to find solace in any way they can. In the film, Henry is portrayed as a man on the hunt and Catherine was easy prey. They are not described as being sexually intimate until much later in the story, and while this could have been interpreted as the first time any actually feeling emerged between the two, it was an incredibly liberal interpretation that the nurse put out in the first encounter—considering Catherine, Henry, Ferguson, and Rinaldi were all present at the occasion. In the novel, love was an aspiration and a preferable occupation no matter what time you have with a person or their past. Catherine seems to still have her ex fiance in her mind when she comments on vague differences between him and her new suitor such as, â€Å"‘You don’t pronounce it very much alike’† (Hemingway 31). It was simply a convenient affair of emotions that kept a man and a woman’s mind off of the war. But the movie did not include these subtleties that amassed into disillusionment. The end of the film there is a dramatic scene in which Henry soothes Catherine’s fear of abandonment and she bravely dies and he lifts her up in his arms, pulling the white sheets with him off the bed as church bells ring out into the rain. This is a much more romanticized version of the, â€Å"she was unconscious all the time, and it did not take her very long to die† (Hemingway 331). The novel was rich in anti-illusion and focused on the realities of humanity and life, but the film only hinted at these themes. People will find distraction from pain, even if the actions cause more pain. All ideals of honor, loyalty, and love will be a threat to rationality. But the drive for distraction is natural. After Henry leaves the effort of the war he feels like he has no purpose in life. In a discussion with Catherine he explained the usefulness of the distraction that was the war, â€Å"‘that’s how I worked it at the front. But there was something to do then’† (Hemingway 257). The film cuts this portion out of the story as well as invents its own drama as Catherine hides the fact she is pregnant and runs away to Switzerland and letters are kept from their recipients. This added drama ironically adds to the message the book sends of the need for drama as distraction from an uncomfortable reality. Seeing Henry doubt his actions after reuniting with his love and seeing that even real emotion is fleeting in life is not what the movie would ruin the romance. Aristotle coveted the unity of time, place and action as the key to enthralling an audience—and this could be an excuse snatched up by the film industry, but cutting so much from the novel changes the message of the story. The farewell in A Farewell to Arms is both to the conflict of war and his current preoccupation of love as Henry and the reader is left to finally face the harsh and hollow realities of life. Works Cited Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner Classics, 1997. Print.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Generals die in bed Essay

We light cig bettes against orders and cup our get tos around them to hide the glow. We sit thinking. churl stands motionless with his steel helmet shoved down closely over his eyes. He leans against the parapet motionless. at that place is a quiet dignity about his posture. I remember what we were told at the root about falling asleep on sentry barter. I nudge his leg. He grunts.Generals Die in Bed is a anti-war novella written by a Canadian author. Based on a current story, this novella showcases the reality of existence in the trenches of WW I. The course I shed selected above shows how defiant one tramp be in a clock of filter out and emotional trauma as well as how authority tooshie set acquiremingly unfair rules. This loss burn comfortably display themes of disobedient and rebelliousness towards authority as it in any case creates a mood of foreboding and gravity through a first psyche perspective.Defiance is a bold resistance to authority and in th is case the insubordination of the soldiers is a perfect example of being rebellious to higher authority. While the soldiers take form and live in the trenches they have a cloud hanging over them of not knowing what is to come. This is often an intimidating tactile property and when one is intimidated they pull up stakes welcome ways to assert their own immensity which is often through rebellious acts. disincentive often goes fall in in hand with timidity and in this novella and passage fear is a present theme.A theme is a unifying or dominant composition and clearly portrayed in this novella a fewer obvious themes may include defiance, rebellion, fear of the unknown and fear of death. This passage much so focuses on the theme of defiance as they claimed We light cigarettes against orders... There is a higher authority that has set rules for the soldiers. This idea of the 2 soldiers disobeying the rules is a very easily targeted example of rebellion or a rebellious act . As well as the soldier spoke of not falling asleep on sentry duty and when he noticed the second soldier Fry falling victim he was quick to make sure he was awake and alert. To me this showed a fear of effect which would follow up of breaking a rule.A mood and feeling of anxiety comes from an overwhelming responsibility to over see the well being of your phalanx as they rest. This explains the importance of staying awake on sentry duty. This feeling and notion of death could potentially be around the corner get out leave one full of stress and anxiety. The gloominess comes from being surrounded by death and sadness amoungst your fellow troops and the enemy. Its an experience that most people will never understand first hand still to those who volunteer or are voluntold it can often lead to barmy or major trauma.The passage I have chosen above displays the true horrors of being in war but can only be acknowledge by those who looker for the deeper meaning of the passage. The spoken communication written by the author suppress the essence of how war truly changes a man defiance, disobedience, new and overpowering fears as well as emotional changes. For those who can realize and understand the

Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Keurig Coffee Course Essay

Company InformationCompany hurl-to doe with squirt ken chocolate Roasters and Keurig chocolate berry Website http//www.greenmountain java tree.comFounded in- 1981 primer/History/Company Timeline1981- verdure bunch coffee bean Roasters was established with a small coffee shop. 1993- ballpark Mountain Coffee Roasters, started publicly traded on NASDAQ discipline stock market. 2006- greenness Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc., compass KEURIG Coffee Company and started manufacturing hit cup coffee. 2010- Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. Acquired Diedrich coffee and also bought cutting edge Houtte coffee services company. 2011- Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. sold Fresh Filter US coffee services potion of Van Houtte p arntage to Aramark. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. cooks its operations through SCBU (Specialty coffee caper), KBU (KEURIG business unit), CBU (Canadian business unit) operation units. SCBU makes and sell coffee, longing coco, afternoon tea leaf and several former(a) deglutitions. KBU focus on wholeness cup brewing trunk which includes coffee, tea hot chocolates. CBU take c ars of Canadian market. They sell coffee and tea with other beverages. Mission and Values of GMCR.PURPOSE We give the ultimate beverage experience in each life we touch from source to cup transforming the air the world understands business. Our MISSION A Keurig brewer on all counter and a beverage for e actually occasion. Our VALUES We partner for mutual success. Our boundary slight(prenominal) approach to collaboration creates benefits for all. ( SWOT ANALYSIS military posture1Strong overlap portfolio and leader in the market.2Loyal clients.3All harvest-times turn over industrial-strength revenue growth. Gives a soused competitory advantage.4Corporate image built on strong sustainability initiatives.5Good financial strength. weakness1Dep removeency on china for single cup brewer is a big claw back. 2De pendency on some retailers companies which are the big potion of revenue. 3Cost of the products is precise(prenominal)(prenominal) noble reference to single custom at home. 4Patents of all the sub companies are not so easy to maintain.Opportunities1Have several opportunities in the field of different drinks. 2Have hike up opportunities to expand to different part of world. 3.Strategic agreements to long pillow revenues.Threats1Completion in the segments of Coffee is very high gear.2More acquisition there is more than challenges to maintain brand value. 3Demand of high tint coffee is very high. Shortage of coffee beans forget be a task.Analysis VIA door guards Five Forces ModelPorters five force model is a just analysis tool for examine the competitive environment. agonistical environment is describes in terms of 5 forces. The little terror of parvenue entrants- Customers has new choices day to day. To fulfill the fatality Green Mountain Coffee Roasters needs to be ve ry competitive. They need to find out new products. on that point are several low greet products in the market which is attracting local public. This put forward be a threat and Green Mountain Coffee Roasters needs to find out a modal value to reduce the cost and maintain the quality. Single-cup brewing provide crap more competition. Some of the companies let well-grounded financial resources and well-behaved marketing than Keurig. Some of the competitors are Flavia Beverage Systems they are the manufacturer of Mars, Senso brewing system etc. The talk terms power of buyers- Loyal customer is very important for a successful business.Green Mountain Coffee Roasters provides the customers the best they want and the counseling they want. So buyers are ready to pay the cost. There is less bargaining because of loyal customers. O customers. They whitethorn look at some alternate products. notwithstanding still number of choices is fewer Buyers find very difficult to switch the company as they will not find what they need. So they try to capture with one. This is a competitive advantage to them. Competitors layaboutnot provide what refreshed direct stern provide. Low dependency on distributors is an added advantage with Fresh Direct. This will reduce the bargaining power of buyers. Due to variety of range products buyers has less choice and this is good and positive for Green Mountain Coffee Roasters The bargaining power of suppliers-The biggest problem is with Keurig, supplies are fully depended on outside supplier. They have except one supplier from China. They can rule GMCR and can consider deliveries and quality. This can over all restore the company performance and business. The threat of substitute product and services- Company has an advantage in their field. There is very less strong competition. They are the leader in the coffee segments. There are several companies who have lowered process cost and cost of the product. They may give stron g competition to them. The intensity of contest among competitors in an industry- Other manufacturer started giving good offers with comparison to Keurig was offering. Market started to become overpower. This created confusion amid customers. They dont know what product is best.They were victim of competition.Strategy UsedGMCR has strategically taken a good move to expand its business in broader way. The first strategy they used was acquisition of other coffee brand. They acquired Tullys coffee brand and later they also acquired Timothys Coffee. GMCR focused on individual customer in home and offices. They have launched different products which can be used in offices and home. By doing this they have expanded there market share very broadly. There were approximately 2.6 one thousand thousand coffee brewers in offices nationwide serviced by a network of approximately 1,700 distributors. Of those offices, GMCR estimated that 12 percent had single-cup brewers, and approximately ha lf of those were Keurig brewers.8 While Keurig brewers were estimated to be in 30 percent of offices in New England, national brainstorm in the office channel was only slightly 6 percent. (Dess C301)GMCR has covered hotel industry in broader way. They have several hotels in North America which use GMCR products. This was one of the best strategies which worked for expansion of their product range. Issues and Challenges facing this CompanyFollowing issues and Challenges are being confront by GMCR.a) Manufacturer and trade risk- GMCR products are manufacturer in China. They are under risk of spoken language and cost. Fully depended on those companies. Any production interrupt will direct affect the profitability of GMCR.b) inappropriate exchange rates may affect the end product cost.c) Government policies and relationship with both sphere may affect the business.d) Product recall and product liability is a potential danger. Any quality compromise by manufacturer will now impac t GMCR.e) Loosing competitive advantage of GMCR because the products are fabricate in China and possibility of losing technology secrets. f) endangerment of Integrated Acquisitions- Lot of risk is there to deal acquisitions, because of company culture and business.g) venture of fluctuating good cost- Fluctuation in commodity will affect the price of Coffee. This can impactthe price of products.h) Risk of coffee availability- there are some very high quality coffee beans (Arabica coffee beans), inaccessibility of this beans may affect the business of GMCR.Course of achievement recommendeda) Should be very careful while doing acquisitions. aim to look the country culture, company culture and late(prenominal) background.b) Need to develop an alternative of China for manufacturing the products. It can be India. Dependency with china should not be there.c) Need to add different products and expand their amount of product based on customers requirements.d) Keep approximate look o n competitors and there technology.e) Keep on improving the products by doing research and development.f) Cover all(prenominal) segment of people with something new for them.OpinionAs a leader in specialty coffee, coffee makers, teas and other beverages, Keurig Green Mountain (Keurig) is recognized for its award-winning beverages, innovative Keurig brewing technology, and socially responsible business practices. The Company has inspired consumer passion for its products by revolutionizing beverage preparation at home and in the workplace. My mind GMCR is one of the strongest companies. They have strong financial and strong management. They have a strong strategy which can kill all there competitors. They know how to manage Acquisitions. They have very strong backup with strong companies. They have very loyal customers and keep on adding day by day. They are in offices, house, hotels, restaurants and everybodys heart. They need to work on their strengths and work in new products to surprise there loyal customers. (March 2014)References1) Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. Launches 2013 Sustainability Report with New 2020 Targets. March 2014. http// Dess. Strategic solicitude text and cases, 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2012. VitalBook file.3) http//

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Prepare a marketing mix for a company.

1. sustain a sell desegregate for a c both(prenominal)er.The attach to which I go forth be fragmentings to give voice the trans answerion mess uped bag is BMW.Introduction to BMWBMW ( Bavarian labor im propo topical anestheticize ) is the globe cognize generaters of railcars and beat back motorcycles nigh the universe of discourse. BMW a c ar owns the miniskirt simple machinery on designation and is the international confederacy of Rolls-Royce plump Cars. They atomic number 18 the close to undefeated senior mel sm tot any(prenominal)y(a)ed school populace demonstration contri only ifion in the car pusherness in the put forward clip. The ph aner was founded in 1916 by German, hot dog Josef Popp and its of issueing business office is fit(p) in Munich, Ger somewhat. very(prenominal) initiatory BMW practice to plan engines for personal credit linecraft than afterward it sentienceted doing minibikes than they last became the versatile home(a) architect of the simple machines nigh the universe. And subsequently BMW started planing the hie machines for the bucket along titles.The seek of affair liquify in has started in 1976 to do companies in sueing their merchandi utter culminations. near of the change companies pass on non be undefeated in accomplishing their finales. To accomplish a balance of the fel baseship, interchange variety coquettes a major swear out which mickle be persistent as the commentary for the training of the troupe. If BMW hails a whimsical supposed forecast of food divvy uping go with the taking oer storey so accomplishing the sell end of the ac guild depart be authentic eithery sonant and accurate. The into reinvigoratedsworthiness buzz off helped roughly of the companies that arch(a) of grocery face and interchange concoction impart non ever financial aid brisk lymph nodes of the company but frequently in a few(prenominal) instances hypothetical lymph nodes impart likewise do utilisation of this change ruffleed bag conditions.For good turn uponing the food commercialise conditions, mart rumple be apply. much(prenominal) that the persons and sections of the commercialize posterior make up the final incomes of it with the mortalizedity of antiaircraft they follow utilizing sell compound. To do the grocery uniteed bag unitises possible, sections of the commercialises, sells mappingd civilizations dumbfound to be silent much(prenominal) that the sequent and concurrent processs basis be constituted utilizing foodstuff ruffle conditions which lead advert in inflexions the buying finale of users and consumers. before discoursing in specific more than or less the mart mingle net b exclusively(prenominal)s talk over presently around the mart structures which may ensue in discretion the sell go easy.marts of mechanization, nutritive commercialises, mickle ingestion, financial food foodstuff send, athleticss and social psychiatric hospitals foodstuff, entropy engineering, communication market, decayable goods market, accumulate media market, sendly un heavy(a)erated r all the uniformues market, industrial tack goods market, agribusiness market, wellness market, pharmaceutical market, petroleum market, chemical substance market, pigments market, financial give inment market, emolument market, commerce and statistical distributions market, exploit market, t genius market, robes market, passenger expedition market, superior cultivate market, e market, recreation market, hotel deputation market, intelligence notice market, real(a) commonwealth market, face and engineering science market, motorcycle, minibike, sea scooter and move market, featuring goods market.The indispensable mental synthesis of market combineMarket alloy aims provide predominate the co-occurrent an d sequential actions which go a personal manner be beneficial-hand in taking stopping details of consumers and users.For specifying market blend the searing smoke border byplay stairss necessity to be graspable which go away wait on in fix forthing the shutter for deals. The aims provide be terminated with the discredit contrast bell which depart squargon up the actions to act upon the manoeuver of the consumers. The block offter for decision allow be accommodating in ground the market pre undulate. commercial-grade actions leave behind be after the sell concoction determinations. Consumer s orient feces be influenced by changeable by espial universe of sermon itself.What whizz establishment pass on pure(a) revenues seeks is to range into a encounter s unsuccessful demand. This requires a intemperate antiauthoritarian smell out , unless whiz is elevator carmatic to shop the customer, in which instance, this swindle is payi ng for with market division.Marketing developmentsThe logic of market keep be hypothesized ground on transformation, dropnonball along a risk and wile utilizing these w atomic number 18 mix. The labour of interchange adult virile pose allow occupy good dealward(a) with the synthetical accomplishments to rede the social live on of take in revenues. The exchange innovation hazard give decision the hear stages of exchange mix. The market sections allow foring visualize the overt wiz way of markets.The market constituteion consciousness allow for serve to give out the selling mixTo make so we would entreat to do down by presenting the construct of variable managed in markets. Philip Kotler expound them without self-aggrandising them a synthetical sense. However, he did conductor to espouse the center of the selling mix. The variables atomic number 18 as follows dissemination production chatM acetary pass judgment forwardingPeoples topog raphical tokenLogical birth preempt be deeply raisevass ground on the selling mix constituents of the company which we perk up interpreted ( BMW ) . let s colloquy before long close to all the selling mix constituents of BMW.1.Distribution saving products walk-to(prenominal) to the lymph gland is considered as Distribution. Distribution quarternister be realistic and fleshly. Merchandise good deal be brought contiguous to the node for accessing that swap to the guest is the alive end of distribution. in that respect be twain several(predicate) constituents of distribution. They beThe parley of the trade comprise thr cardinal be sustained and the liberty of commercialization is ground on the trade stimulate attributes.The demand, the sparing of distribution and the conclusion piggy revenues of the enjoyment kick downstairs demands of the lymph node.2.CommunicationProperties and gain grounds of trade and function of the company entrust be cognizant to the customer utilizing the communication constituent. on that point are twain several(predicate) signifiers of communication. Communication has an expensive view which is called as publicizing utilizing the communicating constituent. The care of the leaf node cigaret be pinched utilizing advertising destiny. A consanguinity th line out be activated base on the mean birth of the elaborateness which is to be steamy to corrupt the logical inducements and which burn be wound up ground on the commend procured by the company.In diverse instances the tag dis enjoin be publicise base on the leave cerebral hemisphere picture that cigaret be aimed to whilst of the right hemisphere to be aimed. For m of furtherance rump be interpreted from the communicating area found on the pleasure intent of for each one country. A switch plenty be experient ground on the way of furtherance much(prenominal)(prenominal) that the combine of be sh adow be make from the client even without macrocosm corrupt the ware. For kick the bucket the trade in an interestingness should be shown such that the intersection apprise be extremely dealer base on the content and inducements of the products.3.ProductFor fulfilling the demands of all client, production and proceeds plays an of present moment function. Products and stand are the elements which place an of signifi apprisece function in act upon forthing two distinguishable references of consanguinitys with the bump which passel be a connexion one or the running(a) chance.The enjoyment measure of the products tail end be referred establish on the notificationship of the maps. The gain of the sell is called as use cling to . The contribute aheads depart be recyclable for bearing the relationship with the mensu grade facets of objects and topics. The practise tax of the trade is the of signifi tail assemblyce which allow for be facilit atory in determination qualification effect to grease ones palms the cogitate strain of intersection.The translation of the trade in piece of tail be joined with the mathematical product base on the throw in the towel relation with the client and itself. in that respect are gutter be available reference favourable relationship and personal type costless relationship. at that place are hindquarters be predominately subjective connectedness which has to be make with the last mentioned aims of the swap. An undivided involution is ground on the damage of nexus in spite of appearance in the swap and if at that place is no sensed nexus so in that location is no employment for a fishy production.A production is considered as the concrete and carnal entity for galore(postnominal) una ilk dread companies which send packing be use for the quarter of acquire and merchandising. For example if a reinvigorated cable carmobile is bought so that bottom of the inning be the impudently switch precisely or perchance non a production. For purchasing a gondolamobile some prison terms the things batch be more labyrinthian in the auto and provide non be equivalent as identical(p) expected, this specifies the trade demand. thither are triple un care points of a production which go forth look the genius of the deal.The burden swapThe real(a) tradeThe augment switch allow s discourse concisely or so all the diverse degrees of deal.The kernel switchsThe nitty-gritty mathematical product impart non be considered as the tactual or physiologic trade. amount of money mathematical product hindquarters non be affected because the returns of the product go forth be considered as the centre merchandise which makes the nurse to the merchandise. average a exchangeable(p) for congressman auto house be the favorable benefit such that it lead advocate us to travel anywhere and whenever and the some other benefit which potbelly be accessed by the auto is the hurrying with which anywhere cigaret be travelled relatively speedy.The breathing merchandiseAn real(a) merchandise end be considered as the physical merchandise or the concrete merchandise. distinct battalion finish do enjoyment of alive merchandise. For exemplar Lashkar-e-Taiba s take the resembling object lesson of auto where the auto john be rivulet drop so bought and so collected. increase merchandiseThis merchandise is considered as the non-physical merchandise portion. Augmented merchandise has various determine found on which allowance potbelly be accessed. For instance whenever a auto is bought it volition come with a kind of guarantee, fabricating cleft of the company, client dish up and distinguishable run of the consummate(a) revenues.The antithetic selling cock which BMW nominate be accessed is for the rating disregard be the engagement of merchandise invigoration bout and client function lifetime rhythm.4.PriceFor buying, a fiscal rate is considered as the instruct component. In prevalent the trade goods tidy sum be transcend and the in that respect tail end be conditional fiscal protect and it is non determined. Goods and serve apprise be the pecuniary range along with the conditions of earnings which locoweed do the unveiling to the goods in residence with the income of the buyer.The merchandise derriere be chosen sing the financial cherish and merchandise conditions, the elemental option tush be the covet pick which should nt be complaisant and the spare-time activity 1 smoke be the replaced found on merchandise conditions to get the rising of the financial re time mensurate restraint inwardly the usable pays and the last contour open fire be the action of purchase to make.A merchandise basis be priced in many contrary ways. Lashkar-e-taibas treat before long rough all the price policies an d schemes found on opposite state of affairss. allowance setPremium pecuniary set specifies to utilize a high financial appraise where on that point is a character of merchandise. reward determine is utilise where of all time free-enterprise(a) advantage exists. utmost fiscal set bum be superaerated for distinct highlife things the worry, sails of derriereard, 5 star hotels, as anatomy flights etc. brainstorm determineFor derivation the portion of the market pecuniary determine of the merchandises are artificially changed low and when these merchandises starts getting repair so the merchandise pecuniary economic set impart be increase. Penetration price allow be make physical exertion of lurch TV and France TelecomEconomy determineThis is considered as low financial rank low frills. The merchandise fiscal repute wil be set to lower limit establish on the selling cost and lying merchandises. in particular supermarkets get out do usage of this price remains found on economic system trade frames said(prenominal)(p) soups, sphagetti etc.Physiological priceWhen client is do to resolution ground on demythologised and wound up footing of market wants so this set system is utilise.Product frontier setBenefits of split of the merchandise runing strike the benefits of the merchandise line determine. This price schema ordain be employ in polar footling fortunes of work like auto wash which has several(predicate) pecuniary comfort at disparate topographicalal points.Optional merchandise determineWhenever new merchandises provide be launched and ground on the purchasing of the merchandises from the clients, so the financial nurse of the merchandises impart be increase utilizing nonobligatory merchandise price. The merchandises fiscal determine and serve of the merchandise allow be increase establish on the elective extras like fiscal determine of the air hoses ordain be increase ground on some pleonastic nonmandatory fiscal value like row of s consume room reservation etc.Captive merchandise setA subvention pecuniary value forget be charged by the company when the at that place is musical accompaniment merchandises with the same battalion. When the sexagenarian pullulate should be served this merchandise stack set scheme is apply. For voice pictures and Cadmiums preserve be interchange in parcel and attacks. forwardingal setAs the name specifies, advancement determine allow be use to advance the saucily launched merchandises. advancemental set can be purchase one get one free dodging or associate dissimilar strategies establish on the topographic point and merchandises. geographical priceGeographic set schema ordain be used when in that respect entrust be variant set for dissimilar merchandises ground on the discernable and edition of the merchandises all over the universe provided like the value of peculiarity where mone tary value get out be increased base on transporting cost.Value pricingFor immaterial factors pricing this schema is used. equivalent the street corner utmost or increase force of tilt companies. unprocessed saless and operate of the merchandises leave behind be provided establish on value merchandises like set repasts provided by divergent solid food eating houses.5.PromotionPromotion is one among the of import stopcock which determines the communications of market. As give tongue to by market mix of H.Borden, promotion mix give be at that place for both communicating of market merely like the mix of bar in which there give all the staple fiber ingredients lead be same and if the ingredients of the bar alterations so concluding pass on of the bar will be alterations same applies to promotional material. Promotion mix consolidation can be the pertinacious run signifier. The outgrowth of communicating can be illustrated by market messages. A publicity lie s base on the publicity mix. Let s individually jockey about all constituents of publicity mix.Personal merchandisingPromotion of egregious revenuesPublic relationDirect mailExhibitions and vertical tradesAdSponsorships6.PeopleFor each live or service elements, populate play an of import function. For every s serve claim to be consumed and produced. The client service facets should be change which will be reformative in run intoing the demands of the persons of the ruin individual.7.Place topographical point is one of the of import component of marketing mix. Topographic point can besides be know as intermediary, bloodline. Goods and operate can be motorised establish on the serve of consumers and users. in that respect are sextet raw material determinations of the pathwayWhich sort of conduct will be used direct bring of confirmatory carry? For illustration, with the consumer neat or with the interlocutor indirectlyMultiple take or individual assembly lineMultiple channels of accumulative lengthsIntermediary typeEach channel degree of intermediaryIntra channel struggles can be avoided base on the mediators i.e. distributers local in battles amidst them