Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Homosexuals have every right to marry. Marriage is a basic human right, if straights can marry in all states then so should gays. Gay rights of all kinds are starting to become increasingly protected. Ã¢â¬Å"In every courthouse, in every proceeding and in every place where a member of the department of justice, stands on behalf of the United States, they will strive to ensure that same-sex marriages receive the same privileges, protections and rights as opposite-sex marriages, under federal law.Ã¢â¬ -Attorney General Eric Holder said. Since it is an unfair act of judgement, gay marriage should be legalized and accepted in all U.S. states. Seventeen countries have legalized same-sex marriages, in addition, same sex marriage is available in some states in Mexico, and the U.S. Almost forty percent of americans live in a place where same-sex couples can marry. (Same Sex Marriage Laws) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s forbidden by state constitutional amendments in twenty seven states, and by state laws in about five states. (Gay Marriage) These contrasting state laws concerning gay marriage reflect divergence in views toward marriage and gay marriage across the country. (Defining marriage: State Defense of Marriage Laws and Same-Sex Marriage) If straights can get married then gays should be able to as well. I have every hope that all supreme courts move into the direction for marriage equality. Today, our nation moves closer toward its ideals of equality and fairness for all. We need to reevaluate how strictly ourShow MoreRelatedHomosexual Marriage Should Be Legal Essay1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHomosexual marriage should be legal because marriage is a symbol of love and passion for one another, the homosexual family life is just as good as heterosexual family life, and prohibiting gay marriage is unconstitutional discrimination. Homosexuality occurs in over four hundred and fifty species, but homophobia (irrational fear or dislike against homosexuality) only occurs in one. (Gay Marriage Research Paper) We live in the Ã¢â¬Å"land of the free,Ã¢â¬ but we still have laws that ban marriage of homosexualRead MoreTyler Dudley. Ms. Elliott. Ap English/2P. 24 January 2017.1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbiggest topics that spark s controversy are the rights of all people. Some of the bigger groups are Black Lives Matter and feminists. While these are very big and prominent, the one that sparks the most controversy is the LGBT community, and one of the biggest claims they make is that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same rights of marriage as straight people. The LGBT community have protests and parades to try to spread the message that homosexuals should have the same rights of marriage as anyone, and the amount ofRead MoreShould Homosexuals Have The Same Rights?1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesShould homosexuals have the same rights as heterosexuals? Regardless of same sex marriage being legal in America, homosexuals have fewer rights than heterosexuals. All people deserve to obtain the same rights and respect regardless of who they choose to love. People are getting disrespected and mistreated all over America, because of which sex they choose to marry. Whether or not one agrees with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual orienta tion or not, it does not give them a right to disrespect and mistreat them. Read More Gay Marriage Essay1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof equal rights for homosexuals. They will all agree that homosexuals should have the same rights in housing, jobs, public accommodations, and should have equal access to government benefits, equal protection of the law, and other rights granted to US citizens. However, when the topic of marriage arises, all the talk of equality ceases. Over fifty percent of all people in the United States oppose homosexual marriage, despite the fact that most are otherwise supportive of homosexual rights. This meansRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmarriage be legalized nationwide, or should it remain illegal? Thirty-five of our states have allowed equality, however sadly the rest are not progressing on the matter (CNN). This is a significant issue because of those involved in a homosexual relationship want the same rights and freedoms of marriage as those whom are convoluted in heterosexual relationships. Marriage e quivalence is a constitutional right promised in the United States, however a dreadful quantity of citizens are still contendingRead More Gay Marriage Should be Legalized Essays1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor not is extremely controversial. According to an article from the Human Rights Campaign, there is nothing wrong with allowing homosexuals to have the same rights as those who are heterosexual. Every individual person should be granted equal rights, regardless of sexuality. Gay marriage should be legalized in all states and countries, it has been held off for too long. Moreover, there are several reasons why homosexuals feel strongly about wanting to be legally married. One reason that is mostRead More Gay Marriages Essay1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGay Marriages Growing up in a heterosexual neighborhood, gay couples were not something that you came across every day as you do in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s time. At the age of 22, Dawn was introduced to her first gay couple, Mike and Thomas. They were friends of her husband. She had never known a gay couple before or even a gay person. It was extremely strange and uncomfortable for Dawn to be in the presence of two gay men. It was nothing out of the ordinary at first. To Dawn, it was just like two men livingRead MoreCritical Analysis of Schulmans Article Gay Marriage and Marriage963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMarriage, for years has been argued that the rights to it or strictly only between a man and a women. Both sexes are assumed to marry someone of the opposite sex. What if, however, an individual wanted to marry someone of the same sex? Why is this debate so heavily heated amongst individuals? Is it that religion is a large structure base that those in society are guided by? Or is it that individuals do n ot understand that marriage is a union between two individuals who are in love? Whatever the caseRead More Let Gays Marry and Leave Marriage Alone Essay1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages I will summarize some of the key points from the essay, Let Gays Marry, by Andrew Sullivan, and the essay, Leave Marriage Alone, by William Bennett. Some of these main points are taken from mutual beliefs of both authors and others are derived from the opposing opinions of the two. The first summary of Andrew SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s essay is a reflection of Andrew SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s stance of the issue. The original essay was in favor of allowing same sex marriage in America. My summary will dictate some ofRead MoreEssay on The Right to Same Sex Marriage1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSame sex marriage is a highly controversial topic that has been lingering in America for some time now. The American society prides itself in the provision of equal rights and opportunities to all, yet, homosexuals continue to be discriminated against and denied their rights to marriage. It is often believe that Ã¢â¬Å"marriage is a commitment between two people that love each other and want to share the rest of their life side by side. It is not measured by whether it is a man and a woman, or a couple
Monday, December 16, 2019
In the novel Ã¢â¬Å"I am not EstherÃ¢â¬ , by Fleur Beale, a character I admired was Kirby. I admired her because she kept strong after her mum abandoned her, she helped Maggie and developed a strong relationship with her, and she left The Fellowship to find her mum and get her life back again. Firstly, I admired Kirby because she stayed strong when her mother abandoned her. We will write a custom essay sample on I Am Ot Esther or any similar topic only for you Order Now Kirby was a complete mess about what happened, but she stayed strong as best as she could and tried get on with the change of lifestyle that was made to her. Kirby did find it hard, but she found a way to deal with it and not be so depressed. Maggie and Daniel helped with this, as Kirby felt less alone with their kindness. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m Kirby, I yelled. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not Esther for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Sake! Ã¢â¬Å". This shows that Kirby is staying true to herself and staying strong with who she really is and that she will not let them change her identity completely. Another reason why I admired Kirby is because she helped Maggie become a happier child and she developed a strong relationship with her. The first time Kirby observed the Pilgrim family praying, Maggie stood out to Kirby because of how young she was, also by seeing how upset it made Maggie when they prayed, and Kirby knew it was wrong and felt sorry for her. Kirby then started to spend more time with Maggie and develop a bond between them, which made the two of them happier and stronger together. Ã¢â¬Å"Come along princess. Come and show me how to get into these funny clothes. This is showing that Kirby is wanting to start a good relationship with Maggie, and that she wants Maggie to be a happier child living with their religious ways. Lastly, I admired Kirby because she left The Fellowship to go find her mum because she knew that living with the Pilgrim family was not what she wanted, and she knew that she needed to be with her mother. Kirby was happy to announce that she would be leaving The Fellowship to return to her mother. She knew it was the right thing to do, but that meant she was expelled from The Church and that Kirby would be dead to them all. Kirby knew that she would not become Esther Pilgrim, and that she knew deep down inside that she was Kirby Greenland. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get out of here! Ã¢â¬ This is what Kirby says to Daniel when The Church kick them both out after they both decide to leave The Fellowship. This is showing that Kirby is eager to escape from The Fellowship, and get her old life back with her mother and other family meÃ¢â¬ ¦ How to cite I Am Ot Esther, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Evaluate The Effect Of Yoga On Elderly Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Having High Oxidative Stress. Answer: Literature review There is a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Jordan, and the incidence of the illness is increasing. Not only in Jordan but across the world there is an increasing prevalence of diabetes (Cadier et al. 2017). As per the InternationalDiabetesFederation reports in 2015 there were more than 400 million people diagnosed with diabetes. According to the World Health Report, 90% of the people with diabetes have type 2 form. It caused an estimated 1.5 million deaths in 2012. The incidence of death is increasing in low and middle-income countries. It is estimated the deaths due to type diabetes in the world may double by 2030 (World Health Organization 2016). The comorbidities associated with the illness such as heart diseases, hypertension, amputations, mental health problems and skin issues, can be delayed or prevented. Therefore, there is a need for preventive measure. It is found in majority of cases that diabetes is associated with sedentary lifestyle. As per the recent literature, the major risk factor of the type 2 diabetes is the lack of physical activity. For obese individuals and overweight individuals weight loss is recommended. Physical interventions like exercise and corresponding changes in weight result in fitness, improved glycemic control, and offset of other complicationstype 2 diabetes mellitusand reduce the cardiovascular risk factors (Mendham et al. 2015). Exercises like yoga appear to be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes. As per the study by Chimkode et al. (2015), yoga is effective in the patients with the type 2 diabetes, in reducing the blood glucose levels. Yoga is the inexpensive lifestyle intervention that can be easily implemented as low cost strategy in the developing country. It can be considered an economical adjuvant and a beneficial method to manage type 2 diabetes. Yoga is the mind-body practice that in cludes breathing exercises, meditation, and physical postures. It had been found to have a different effect on hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal response, and it has different effect on the sympathetic nervous system as well. Few studies have reported that yoga can be useful mechanism to manage the oxidative stress and blood glucose in type 2 diabetes (Muthuselvi et al. 2017). Oxidative stress is associated with type 2 diabetes. Increased oxidative stress and ageing are known to be a contributory factor of complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Stadler 2013). Therefore the present study is focused on determining the effect of yoga on oxidative stress, where the intervention will be tested for the changes in blood pressure, BMI, and the glycemic status. The rationale for choosing this intervention is the cost effectiveness. It is an effective method for the people having sedentary lifestyle as it will increase the effectiveness of the diabetes treatment as evident from literature review that there are a lot of health benefits of Yoga. However, there are few studies that determined the effect of yoga on the oxidative stress in elder patients. The rationale for choosing the older patients with type 2 diabetes is the high level of oxidative stress with ageing (Butterfield et al. 2014). Research questions Is yoga effective therapy for reducing oxidative stress, BMI and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes elderly patients? Is yoga beneficial for improving the antioxidant potentialin the aged patients with type 2 diabetes? Methods Setting For achieving the aim of the study, a quantitative research paradigm is chosen. The study is planned to conduct at two yoga centres of XYZ hospital in Jordan. The Urban hospital setting is selected for conducting the study. Participants The participants for the study will be selected from the diabetes out-patient department of the hospital. The study participants will be divided into two groups. In one group only elderly patients with type 2 diabetes will be allocated, and another group will contain younger subjects. The intervention includes delivering Yoga intervention to elderly diabetic patients as well as younger subjects for one year. Both the groups will be subjected to the intervention for one year. During the intervention, the subjects in both the groups will be allowed to have normal diet and medication. A total of 100 participants will be approached, and each group is proposed to have 42-45 participants. Nor recommendations will be given by the physician for taking vitamin supplements during the period of interventions. The participants may have stable drug dosages for hypertension and diabetes. Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria The age range for elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes is 40-80 years. Subjects less than 59 years old will be allocated to younger group of intervention, and those of 60 and above are allocated to elderly group of intervention. The participants chosen should have diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and are excluded if they are alcoholic, smoker, and do not have stable medication for last 30 days. Participants will be included if they have the willingness to seek yoga intervention. Further participants with cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and acute macron vascular complications, history of osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, history of infections or those participating in any weight loss programme are excluded as it may hamper results. Yoga intervention In the yoga centres of the hospital, the chosen participants will be instructed to attend the yoga classes as per their convenience. Each of the participants must attend 70-90 minutes of yoga every day and may take a break in weekend. For the participants with heart disease the floor exercises may be waivered (Deshmukh and Bedekar 2015). Based on the literature review the set of yoga interventions selected for the study are: Yoga poses Duration of yoga Triangle pose 3 min Tree pose 3 min Mountain pose 2 min Forward bend pose 3 min Cow faced pose 4 min Seated forward bend pose 4 min Extreme sideways stretch pose 3 min Wind-relieving pose 5 min Twist pose 4 min Thunderbolt pose 3 min Corpse pose 10 min Alternate nostril breathing 10 min (Sources: Deshmukh and Bedekar 2015) Compliance with intervention was determined by maintaining the attendances for at least three days a week for one year Measurements Before the start of the intervention, the eligible participants will be invited for the baseline evaluation. It will include blood glucose measurements, complete medical history, serum creatinine, ECG, microalbuminuria, lipid profile, and for any complications associated with disease. It will prevent the bias in the results (Deshmukh and Bedekar 2015). After the intervention again the same measurements will be taken as in done in similar study conducted by (Chimkode et al. 2015). Physical examination of the participants may include measuring by the electronic scale the weight in Kilogram (Kg) and the height in centimetres (Cm). Plasma will be analysed for glucose. For this purpose 7 ml of venous blood will be collected, red blood cell hemolysate will be prepared to analyse the reduced glutathione levels and malondialdehyde/MDA (Hegde et al. 2013). According to Furukawa et al. (2017), MDA is the marker of oxidative stress. It gives pink colour upon reacting with the thiobarbituric acid reagent. It can be estimated spectrophotometrically at 535 nm. Thus, MDA assay will be measured using suitable assay and using a standard laboratory method the Plasma glucose will be assayed. Ethics Prior to proceeding with the research, approval from the ethical board or local committee will be taken. The participants will be explained about the study design, and informed consent will be taken. Adequate measures will be taken to maintain the confidentiality, privacy and dignity of the participants (Creswell 2013). Statistical analysis The parameters obtained will be statistically analysed using appropriate SPSS tool. For comparing the continuous variables, paired t-test will be used. A difference of the parameters between two groups will be measured by the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlation testing includes Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation. Statistical significance will be understood by the p-value 0.05 (Alfonso?Rosa et al. 2015). Importance, relevance and impact It is expected that the yoga interventions will improve the oxidative stress in the chosen participants. The results will be relevant for the clinician and the nurses as they can recommend the patients to attend yoga classes for improvement in oxidative stress and decreasing comorbidities of type 2 diabetes. The government can be recommended for establishing the free yoga centres in low socio-economic communities with high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. It will be beneficial for not only the diabetes patient, rather others at risk as well as it may reduce the risk factors. Thus the selection of the topic is justified, and the results are expected to be viable. There are several implications for the future study. For instance, if the results are positive then the intervention can be targeted for larger population to know how long the benefits may last. Further studies can be designed such as to evaluate the yoga poses most beneficial for the diabetes patients. Conclusion In conclusion, a suitable and cost-effective intervention that is Yoga is proposed for determining its effect on the oxidative stress in the elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. The intervention and the outcome measure is designed based on the literature review of similar studies. This research proposal will help identify if the yoga intervention is beneficial in improving the oxidative stress and the glycemic status. Further, the difference in the effect on oxidative stress due to yoga in elder and the younger patients can be determined. Hopefully, the data obtained from the research will support the intervention and help in further optimising the duration of intervention and its content. It will further increase the research knowledge and help identify any flaws in the research design Bibliography Alfonso?Rosa, R.M., del Pozo?Cruz, B., del Pozo?Cruz, J., Saudo, B. and Rogers, M.E., 2014. TestRetest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change Scores for Fitness Assessment in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.Rehabilitation Nursing,39(5), pp.260-268. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rnj.111/full Butterfield, D.A., Di Domenico, F. and Barone, E., 2014. Elevated risk of type 2 diabetes for development of Alzheimer disease: a key role for oxidative stress in brain.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease,1842(9), pp.1693-1706.Retrived from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443914001756 Cadier, F., Jallow Gransson, I. and Rosengren, K., 2017. Nursing Students Experiences With Type 2 Diabetes in Jordan: A Qualitative Content Analysis.Home Health Care Management Practice,29(2), pp.103-110. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1084822316682930 Chimkode, S.M., Kumaran, S.D., Kanhere, V.V. and Shivanna, R., 2015. Effect of yoga on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR,9(4), p.CC01. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437062/ Creswell, J.W., 2013.Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=enlr=id=EbogAQAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=Research+design:+Qualitative,+quantitative,+and+mixed+methods+approaches.+Sage+publications.ots=cbbKtSUzz7sig=6TOh9b8SHZTAwn6tcb7ONNhxQG0 Deshmukh, S.V. and Bedekar, N., 2015. Yoga therapy as potential treatment for type II diabetic patients.American Journal of Diabetes, Obesity Metabolism,2(1), pp.1-7. Retrieved from: https://ivyunion.org/index.php/ajdom/article/view/678 Furukawa, S., Fujita, T., Shimabukuro, M., Iwaki, M., Yamada, Y., Nakajima, Y., Nakayama, O., Makishima, M., Matsuda, M. and Shimomura, I., 2017. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome.The Journal of clinical investigation,114(12), pp.1752-1761. Retrieved from: https://www.jci.org/articles/view/21625/ Hegde, S.V., Adhikari, P., Shetty, S., Manjrekar, P. and D'Souza, V., 2013. Effect of community-based yoga intervention on oxidative stress and glycemic parameters in prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial.Complementary therapies in medicine,21(6), pp.571-576. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965229913001350 Mendham, A.E., Duffield, R., Marino, F. and Coutts, A.J., 2015. A 12-week sports-based exercise programme for inactive Indigenous Australian men improved clinical risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Journal of science and medicine in sport,18(4), pp.438-443. Retrieved from : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1440244014001248 Muthuselvi, K., Dhanalakshmi, S. and Abhishek, G., 2017. Effect of Yoga on Glycosylated hemoglobin levels in Diabetic subjects.Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology,4(2), pp.238-240. Retrieved from: https://www.innovativepublication.com/admin/uploaded_files/IJCAP_4(2)_238-240.pdf Stadler, K., 2013. Oxidative stress in diabetes. InDiabetes(pp. 272-287). Springer New York. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-5441-0_21 World Health Organization, 2016.Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204871/1/9789241565257_eng.pdf
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Vinegar Tom Paper Caryl Churchill uses different types of language throughout the play to give depth to and display the emotions of the characters in Vinegar Tom. This can be seen from the offset of the play in which Alice talks to the man passing through the village. The Man The mans opening line is; am I the devil? asked to Alice. She does not seem to understand and so he continues, Im the devil. Man in black they say, the man would seem to lack confidence and this is something Churchill builds on in the next few lines; Have I not got great burning eyes then? Is my body not rough and hairy? Didnt it hurt you? Are you saying it didnt hurt you? He clearly has a low self esteem and is self conscious of in the way he looks and the size of his penis. These are all things he is worried by but the root of all his fears are revealed after these initial worries. The line So you think that was no sin we did? reveals religion to the conversation. The man is confused by religion. People at the time were not sure weather to be Protestant or Catholic. He talks of how one of his family was burnt for being Catholic so they became Protestant and one burnt for that to. He is afraid of his sins. That is why he was asking if he was the devil at the beginning, because he was afraid that the sin they had committed was so bad that he was becoming the devil or that the devil was going to get him for it, sometimes I think the devil has me. He is afraid that his sins are going to far. He calls Alice a whore and then begins to leave and curses at her, Devil take you, whore, whore, dammed strumpet, succubus, witch! We will write a custom essay sample on Vinegar Tom specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Vinegar Tom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Vinegar Tom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He sees her as one of his sins and is disgusted by her. He shouts and then leaves. Alice When Alice meets the man for the first time she uses a pet name for him. She does this because she does not yet no his name. She asks him What sweet? and calls him Darling. She is friendly and polite to him, she listens to what he has to say and defends him from his own self confidence like; It seemed a fair size, like other mens. and I dont like a man too smooth. She does this to be friendly and because she wants the man to stay with her. When he begins to leave she begs him to stay saying, Your not going? Stay with me, please. Alice is a kind person and lonely, she is so desperate for a man that she doesnt see that shes been used. He has to knock her down before she becomes resentful of him. She curses at him, Go to hell then go to the devil, you devil. This is very serious language for the time the play is set in as people were very afraid of hell and of the devil. Alice is furious and upset by the man and her language is used to reflect her mood. Jack Jack is a cruel and evil man.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Critical scholarship Essays Critical scholarship Essay Critical scholarship Essay the plants of Schwartz and Wellhausen ) did Johannine beginning unfavorable judgment seem to be on a firmer methodological foundation. With the debut of an aporia as grounds of a literary seam, the changeless drum-beat of critical scholarship was that John 14:31d is the proto-typical aporia and that it clearly belongs next to 18:1. Yet, to happen a manner to do these texts neighbours once more has been the thorny issue for scholarship. Throughout the 20th century the solution offered to the instance of the magnus reus has taken four basic signifiers ( with a dizzying array of substitutions ) . In wide classs, the text has been seen as a converse, interpolated, taken, or authored text. In several fluctuations, John 14:31 originally followed on the heels of 18:1. Spitta and Wendt considered it the heterotaxy of an Ur-Gospel, and Bultmann at mid-century, saw a assortment of beginnings, but in general, the best account for the magnus reus was heterotaxy on the evidences of manner. M. Lattke was possibly the last to hold defended this position in 1974. In general, most observers today regard the position as indefensible, because the shamble of the deck seldom leads to general understanding beyond the posteriority of 14:3 1. Many today see 14:31 as grounds of an interpolated text. The inside informations of this proposed insertion are greatly varied. Some believe that it is the work of a foreign manus inserted into the step ining sweep by the revivalist. Others regard the insertion to be one or more discourses written by the revivalist and later added by either a reviser or the writer himself. Others ( like Wellhausen ) considered the add-on to be wholly foreign and held that it must hold been added by a reviser. At any rate, once more the premise is that 14:31 belongs next to 18:1 in the unimproved discourse. Dettwiler s Relecture Theory A speculation that is quickly deriving land on the continent and traveling into North America is Dettwiler s relecture theory. Here the premise is that instead than merely any interpolation or even a 2nd bill of exchange of the farewell discourse, much of the step ining sweep of text between 14:31 vitamin D and 18:1 is really an enlargement and re-application of 13:1-14:31. This reading and enlargement for a new epoch is non an effort to warrant the interpolation but to explicate the consensus already reached. The text is inserted to run into the demands of a ulterior coevals of the Johannine community. Again, the over curving templet is that the magnus reus creates such an crying aporia that it can merely be solved by proposing editing. The consequences of the structural probe leave the exegete with somewhat of a riddle. If the text is an emended mosaic, it has been wonderfully done. The reviser has chosen stuff from disparate contexts ( perchance of the same genre ) and wedded them in such a manner as to bring forth a consistent macro-structure that across the first two units of the text neer leaves the bid construction built-in in exhortative discourse and in the 3rd efficaciously reviews and passages to the high priestly prayer. Furthermore, the reviser may hold incorporated some synoptic traditional stuff ( 15:1-11 ) but has done so in a manner as non to go against the bid construction of the text and at the same time has marked it as the extremum of the text without a viing subdivision besides therefore marked. In this column chef-doeuvre, the reviser has besides efficaciously produced a text that is coherent in non merely organic ties but componential ties as good. In short, the text is wonderfully edited. But herein lays the riddle: this attractively and masterfully edited text has a glaring defect. A defect so crying, so obvious, that it is seized upon by beginning critics as the archetypal illustration that proves the farewell discourse and the Gospel are the consequences of multiple custodies. But, how could this fake pas be the consequence of an editor of such fantastic ability? What compounds the job is that it could hold been so easy solved before it of all time started. All the reviser needed to make was do his interpolation fifth part of a poetry earlier. This is such an easy and reasonable solution to the job that a reasonably skilled editor could hold seen it, but the reviser of the farewell discourse did non. Brodie sums it up nicely in his most recent commentary. He states, In discoursing the perplexing Arise, allow us travel ( 14:31 ) the first thing that needs to be said is that the column hypothesis is non satisfactory. Not that the redacting thought is inherently unattractive ; there is, in fact, an huge credibleness to the general thought of an editor who, given hard stuff, makes the best of it. But this general thought does non suit the instance ; the stuff ( in 14:3 1 ) is non hard. In fact, one could barely conceive of an easier column undertaking than traveling Arise, allow us goÃ¢â¬ ¦ to the terminal of fellow. 17 But any editor who felt free to infix three chapters is improbable to hold had scruples about traveling half a poetry. In fact, it would non been have been necessary to travel Arise and allow us travel If, as is sometimes said, it instantly preceded the history of Jesus traveling out ( 18:1 ) , so, peculiarly since there were no chapter divisions at the clip, all the editor had to make was take the right topographic point for the insertion-in other words before Arise, allow us travel The logic of the column hypothesis leads to the thought that in some unusual manner the editor was both careful and bungling, free and scrupulous. Therefore, it is a hypothesis which lacks internal coherency. This lack of internal coherence is displayed in the literature by the proliferation of theories that attempt, in one manner or another, to put the magnus reus next to 18:1. The truth is, if history can be our usher that the proliferation of theories will go on. Older theories will be tweaked ; and callings will be built upon new and inventive attacks to the farewell discourse. At the bosom of this province of personal businesss is the interaction of three premises. First, that an aporia in the Fourth Gospel is, foremost and first, grounds of a literary seam ; 2nd, that it fits better next to 18:1 ; and therefore, 3rd, the magnus reus is the proto-typical aporia. However, these premises are far from proven. An Aporia Must Indicate A Literary Seam The usage of aporias in the word picture of beginnings has been the trademark of Old Testament higher unfavorable judgment for about two hundred old ages. The contention is that a non-sequitur or a unsmooth passage is by definition grounds of the amalgamation of beginnings by a reviser. This is, of class, a reductionistic ( if non simplistic ) attack that assumes merely one valid reply to a trouble. Yet, this is now so self-evident in higher critical circles that the philosophical underpinning for it is merely assumed as fact. Wellhausen neer explained why an aporia must be a literary seam. In fact, it is non until Otto Eissfeldt that Pentateuchal unfavorable judgment s standards of separation are clearly delineated. Schwartz, who coined the term aporia in relation to the Gospel of John, neer defends its usage ( or even defines its significance ) in the now-famous series of articles. Bacon besides made this premise when he remarked that the indicants point to what a geologist might name a fault in he literary strata, and, as the critic good knows, it is these faults which reveal the literary history of a papers ( accent added ) . Therefore, by 1894, Bacon sees no demand to support the deduction of a literary mistake, but merely cites its self-evident standing among critics. All this is to state that the current reading of aporias as, by and big, bespeaking literary seams is an old premise that is non, and has neer been, a proved rule but an premise. That is non to state that at that place have non been efforts to make so in the literature. One brief effort at demoing verifiable standards for beginning separation is the monograph by David M. Carr. Carr s treatment is, in many ways, a breath of fresh air from source-critical circles. He is careful and cautious in his claims and clearly recognizes the troubles in defining between a seam caused by a reviser or by an writer. Carr attempts to demo recoverable beginnings from ancient plants like the Diatesseron, the Gilgamesh heroic poem, comparings in Jeremiah from the LXX and the Masoretic Text, et Al. Carr makes the instance that repeat is a cardinal signal in beginning separation. However, he does non do a conclusive statement for know aparting between a redactional component and an auctorial device. For illustration, he cites the usage of resumptive repetition as grounds of a literary seam. However, he readily acknowledges that To be certain, writers can themselves utilize such resumptive repeat to restart the train of idea after their ain digression Carr concludes that terminological and ideological indexs must besides be present. However, even in his treatment of these devices he concludes that there is ever the opportunity the writer consciously altered the nomenclature to hold a certain consequence However, it is dubious that a certain Reconstruction of the examples like the Diatesseron could be executed without anterior cognition of the beginnings. So so, while the illustrations of emended texts that are produced may demo certain traits, these traits are non sole to redact ed texts. Another job is the nature of the redacted texts. The Diatesseron was an wholly new genre of literature: the Gospel harmoniousness. It is an improper measure to compare its redaction to the type proposed for the Pentateuch ( or the Fourth Gospel ) . In the same vena, some of Carr s Old Testament examples sum to text-critical enquiries instead than the weaving of beginnings to bring forth a new text. The lone similar illustration could be the Gilgamesh heroic poem, but it excessively has its jobs. In other words, the illustrations so far cited by Carr do non look to be comparings of similar redactional procedures. But, even so, there remains no lingual point that needfully points to a literary seam that could non hold been produced by an writer. An aporia, so, as grounds of a literary seam is still an premise. A revealing indictment of this premise comes instead unwittingly from an improbable beginning: the antecedently cited work by Otto Eissfeldt. He states, Alternatively of these [ traditional ] divisions, we must at any rate for the older content of Gen. to Josh. , and likely besides for that from Judg. to Sam. and into Kings, think in footings of strata. Merely so can we acquire a image of the literary beginnings which were used in their undertaking by the compilers or more properly revisers of the older basic stuff Ã¢â¬ ¦ So, so, the separation of beginnings is impossible unless one begins with the premise of strata. Then, upon this premise, literary beds are delineated instead than clear, undeniable grounds that can merely be explained in footings of strata. Eissfeldt s observation is stating in that without the premise, the grounds does non oblige one to presume literary strata. It sounds really much like a theory in hunt of back uping grounds. But does the grounds support it? Many would reply negatively. In fact, among Pentateuchal beginning critics the now-traditional JEDP theory still holds sway to a grade, but today, due to the assortment and deepness of the statements against it, it must be smartly defended. Wenham characterizes the temper of scholarship as looking for a fresh and converting paradigm. Therefore Johannine beginning critics who defend the usage of an aporia as grounds of a literary seam on the footing of success in Pentateuchal unfavorable judgment do so at the hazard of being out of measure with the current province of the job. So, so, what does a Johannine aporia prove? In fact, small or nil solid. Carson notes that in utilizing Ross s graduated table of grounds ( conclusive, persuasive, implicative, impersonal, and irrelevant ) , aporias constitute no more than impersonal grounds. Carson goes on to propose that aporias should non be seen as cut-and-dry grounds for a literary seam for two grounds. First, an aporia may merely be an accident. He refrains from placing an inadvertent aporia in the Fourth Gospel. However, his point is that they are non unnatural phenomena, but built-in in composing. Most authors have, in fact, produced many of them without the benefit of faulting a 3rd party. Thus, an aporia is every bit likely created by an writer as an editor. In fact, the instance could be made that it is less likely in the instance of an editor who would be looking really carefully at the text. The following footing for cautiousness is that an aporia may be generated by some factor other than the gawky interpolation of a beginning. This 2nd ground for avoiding the designation of an aporia as a literary seam is likely the most weighty. The literary seam is merely one option for placing the ground for an aporia. There may, in fact, be many plausible grounds for an aporia. Sometimes the designation of an aporia is merely exaggerated. Is a poetic beginning to the Gospel so unlikely that the prologue could non be original? Do the enumeration of marks and their expiration needfully bespeak a literary seam? At 7:3-5 does the demand of Jesus brothers that he travel to Judea to execute marks truly indicate a trouble? True, he had already been in Jerusalem and performed marks ( see, e.g. , 5:1-9 ) , but should we truly name this an aporia when any figure of accounts can be offered ( including the writer s purpose to demo that Jesus brothers did non follow his motions and made the n atural adequate premise that the Messiah should make marks in Jerusalem ) ? These and many other alleged aporias do non look excessively implicative of a existent job, much less a literary seam. The step of turbulency or clumsiness appears to be modem western criterions. Could it be that merely these modem esthesias perceive the above-named aporias? One must state that if the Gospel is edited, the editor ( s ) of the Gospel saw no sufficient ground to presume that the text was dreadfully inconsistent. If he or they did non believe so, why are we at strivings to presume that an original author would hold operated under different premises? Would they non both operate under the same literary conventions? Consider Whybray s reaction to a similar phenomenon in Pentateuchal unfavorable judgment. In depicting a defect in the current Documentary Hypotheses of the Pentateuch, he states, If the paperss postulated by the hypothesis possessed some sort of integrity and consistency-and it is this which is held to give them plausibility-then the revisers were the individual who wantonly destroyed that integrity and consistency-and once more, the hypothesis depends on believing that th ey did. But this is simply to bear down the revisers with mistakes of logic and sensitiveness of which the advocates of the Documentary Hypothesis are at such strivings to shrive the writers of the paperss. If the revisers were unconcerned about these things, it is hard to understand on what grounds the advocates of the hypothesis maintain that the writers of the paperss were concerned about them. It seems more logical to reason that ancient Israelite thoughts of consistence were different from those of modern western adult male: that the Israelites were in fact to a big extent indifferent to what we should name incompatibilities. Weisse, Evangeliumfrage, 116. Buttmann, John, 459. Lattke, Einheit im Wort, 131-246. See, e.g. , Fortna, Predecessor, 151. See, e.g. , Barrett, John, 454-55. See, e.g. , Wellhausen, Erweiterungen and Anderungen, 8 and Schnackenburg, John, 3:89-90 Dettwiler, Gegenwart, 51-52. Brodie, John, 437. Note besides Robert Kysar s review of Fortna. He states, It is this inquiry [ gawky redacting ] which most earnestly plagues Fortna s admirable attending to the aporias of the text as the key to the solution of the literary mystifier of the book. How can one believe, on the one manus, that the revivalist was an sharp plenty theologian to feel the failings of his marks Gospel and subtly rectify them and yet, on the other manus, was such an inferior editor that he left glowering defects in the simple readability of his papers? Until that contradiction can be resolved, it seems that the value of the contextual standards will be earnestly impaired ( Robert Kysar, The Fourth Evangelist and His Evangel: An Examination of Contemporary Scholarship [ Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1975 ] , 36 ) . For an English interlingual rendition of the German 3rd edition, see Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction, trans. Peter R. Ackroyd ( New York: Harper A ; Row, 1965 ) , 182-88. Bacon, Displacement, 66. David M. Carr, Reading the Fractures of Genesis: Historical and Literary Approachs ( Louisville: Westminster, 1996 ) , 23-40. Carr is to be commended for trying to set the word picture of beginnings on empirical evidences. However, the trouble of such a proposal is shown in that his major grounds for empirical grounds comes from a individual beginning. See Jeffrey H. Tigay, ed. , Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985 ) . This has frequently been brought into Johannine beginning separations as good. See Urban C. von Wahlde, The Earliest Version of John s Gospel: Recovering the Gospel of Signs ( Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1989 ) , 27. Carr, Reading the Fractures, 26. Ibid. , 32. See, e.g. , Carr s major work cited in this subdivision, Emanuel Tov, The Literary History of the Book of Jeremiah in Light of its Textual History, in Empirical Models, 211-37. It seems that the type of editing offered by the book of Jeremiah is an extended alteration and non the same originative nuptials that is under consideration for the Pentateuch and Johannine surveies. See Jeffrey H. Tigay, The Development of the Gilgamesh Epic ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982 ) . For brief responses californium. W. G. Lambert, reappraisal of The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, by Jeffrey H. Tigay in Journal of Biblical Literature 104 ( 1985 ) : 115-17 ; but particularly see Joan Goodnick Westenholz, reappraisal of The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, by Jeffrey H. Tigay in Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 ( 1984 ) : 370-72. Eissfeldt, Old Testament, 135-36. The Documentary Hypothesis as expressed by Wellhausen came under onslaught from its really beginning, but particularly in recent old ages. In Wellhausen s clip the authoritative rebuttals were by William Henry Green and James Orr. See William Henry Green, The Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch ( New York: Scribners, 1895 ; reissue, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1978 ) . See besides James On, The Problem of the Old Testament Considered with Reference to Recent Criticism ( New York: Scribners, 1906 ) . In more recent old ages several have expressed terrible unfavorable judgments against the cogency of the hypothesis. See, e.g. , Umberto Cassuto, The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch, trans. Israel Abrahams ( Jerusalem: Magnes, 1941 ; reissue, Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961 ) ; Rolf Rendtorff, The Problem of the Process of Transmission in the Pentateuch, trans. John J. Scullion, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 89 ( Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1990 ) ; R. N. Whybray, The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 53 ( Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1987 ) ; R. Norman Whybray, Introduction to the Pentateuch ( Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995 ) , 12-27 ; Gleason L. Archer, Jr. , A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, rpm. and exp. erectile dysfunction. ( Chicago: Moody, 1994 ) . For a recent survey of Pentateuchal beginning unfavorable judgment see Gordon J. Wenham, Chew overing the Pentateuch: The Search for a New Paradigm, in The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches, erectile dysfunction. David W. Baker and Bill T. Arnold ( Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999 ) : 116-44. David M. Carr, Controversy and Convergence in Recent Studies of the Formation of the Pentateuch, Interpretation 23 ( 1997 ) : 22. Wenham, Chew overing the Pentateuch, 119. Cf. R. N. Whybray s statement, despite the huge sum of scholarly work which has been published particularly during the past century refering the writing, day of the month, and history of composing of the Pentateuch, these are fundamentally side issues. The existent involvement for readers of the Bible does non lie here. If it did, the present coevals of readers would see merely defeat. For although it may be true that recent bookmans have succeeded in exposing many of the mistakes of earlier critics, it must be admitted that every bit far as assured consequences are concerned we are no nearer to certainty than when critical survey of the Pentateuch began ( Whybray, Introduction to the Pentateuch, 12 ) . See, e.g. , von Wahlde s justification of his methodological analysis. He does non warrant the usage of an aporia beyond its usage in Pentateuchal unfavorable judgment. He states, The success of Pentateuchal analysis indicates that such standards will supply a solid footing for analysis of the marks besides ( von Wahlde, Earliest Version, 28 ) . J. M. Ross, The Use of Evidence in New Testament Studies, Theology 79 ( 1976 ) : 216-17. D. A. Carson, Current Source Criticism of the Fourth Gospel: Some Methodological Questions, Journal of Biblical Literature 97 ( 1978 ) : 428. Ibid. , 424. The likely event that the elusive 7th mark in John s Gospel is the Temple cleaning of 2:14-17 could make some aporias for those who see an original beginning that has been reordered. For those who see this pericope as a Johannine mark see Beasley-Murray, John, 42 ; Carson, John, 181 ; Dodd, Interpretation, 300-303 ; Ridderbos, John, 121.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Saint Mary's College in California Admissions Facts Ã¢â¬â¹Saint Marys College in Moraga, California accepts most applicants each year, with a high acceptance rate of 80Ã percent, although applicants tend to have strong academic records. Students interested in applying to the school will need to submit an application (the school accepts the Common Application; more on that below), high school transcripts, a letter of recommendation, SAT or ACT scores, and a personal essay. Check out Saint Marys website for more information on how to apply. Admissions Data (2016) Saint Marys College of California Acceptance Rate: 80Ã percentTest Scores: 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 480Ã / 590SAT Math: 470Ã / 590SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanSAT score comparison for California collegesACT Composite: 22 / 28ACT English: 22Ã / 28ACT Math: 20Ã / 27What these ACT numbers meanACT score comparison for California colleges Saint Marys College Description Saint Marys College of California is a Catholic, Lasallian, liberal arts college located in Moraga, California, about 20 miles east of San Francisco. The college has an 11 to 1Ã student/faculty ratioÃ and an average class size of 20. Students can choose from 38 majors, and among undergraduates, business is the most popular program. Specifically, the most popular majors are Accounting, Business Administration, Communication Studies, Drama, English, Liberal Studies, Psychology. One of the defining features of the Saint Marys curriculum is the Collegiate Seminar, a series of four courses that focus on the major works of Western civilization. All students, including those in pre-professional fields, take these seminars- two in the first year, and two more before graduation. In athletics, the Saint Marys Gaels compete in the NCAA Division IÃ West Coast Conference. Enrollment (2016) Total Enrollment: 3,908Ã (2,802 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 40 percent male / 60 percent female93Ã percent full-time Costs (2016-17) Tuition and Fees: $44,360Books: $1,107 (why so much?)Room and Board: $14,880Other Expenses: $2,700Total Cost: $63,047 Saint Marys College Financial Aid (2015 -16) Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 96Ã percentPercentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 95 percentLoans: 61 percentAverage Amount of AidGrants: $25,400Loans: $8,018 Graduation and Retention Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 86Ã percent4-Year Graduation Rate: 60Ã percent6-Year Graduation Rate: 73Ã percent Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Mens Sports:Ã Basketball, Golf, Cross Country, Soccer, Tennis, Track and Field, BaseballWomens Sports:Ã Lacrosse, Rowing, Softball, Soccer, Tennis, Basketball, Volleyball, Cross Country If You Like Saint Marys College, You May Also Like These Schools: San Jose State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of San Diego: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphPepperdine University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphCal Poly: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of California - Irvine: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphStanford University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of California - Santa Cruz: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphLoyola Marymount University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSanta Clara University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of San Francisco: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSan Diego State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph Saint Marys and the Common Application Saint Marys College uses theÃ Common Application. These articles can help guide you: Common Application essay tips and samplesShort answer tips and samplesSupplemental essay tips and samples Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
What is Interior Design - Essay Example This editing discusses the fiels of the interior design that does not only involve picking colors, functioning with flourishing stunning fabrics or being creative all day long as many people may think. Modern interior design also delineates a group of numerous yet linked projects that engross turning an interior space into a valuable setting for the range of individuals. In the ancient times, interior designers were incorporated in the processes of building. The researcher describes interior designers as the people who carry out interior design projects. The multifaceted architecture that has resulted in the development of industrial processes and development of the society has transformed the profession of interior designer today. The researcher also discusses one of the primary aspects of being an Interior Designer today, that is comprehension and interpretation of ideas and identification of a client to provide an appropriate environment in which to live or work. It is essential a nd important to come up with a space, which will convey a message. In addition, a significant emphasis should be placed on all the design processes, generation of new ideas, experimentation of different concepts and harmonies, specification of unusual materials and commitment to accurate attention to details. To conclude, the researcher mentiones that a successful Interior Designer must also cover all the procedures of formulating a concept, from formulating ideas, concept boards and technical drawings to a new design solution.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Write on anything related to European history from the Ancient World up through the Reformation - Research Paper Example The history of the country starts from the Stone Age. Minoan and Mycenaean kings also have contributed significantly to the history of the country. This paper will try to enlighten the history of the ancient Greece and its historic reformation. The ancient Classical and Hellenistic periods of Greece are without any shadow of doubt the most splendid eras the world has ever come across. Those periods left behind lots of ideas, art and concepts. The history of the ancient Greece is popularly known as the building blocks of the western civilization. Before the 8th century BC, the country was submerged in the dark era. In the 8th century the country started to came out of the Dark Ages. It was introduced by the fall of Mycenaean civilization. During that period the country replaced Mycenaean script with Greek alphabet1. Archaic period of Greece witnessed Lelantine War which was the oldest documented war as far as the Ancient Greece is concerned. This period was almost three century before than the time of classical age. During the Archaic period the country advanced a lot as far as the art, poetry and technology were concerned. After the Archaic period, the next period is popularly known as the Classical Period. This period las ted for almost 200 years. The period has undergone lots of annexations by the Persian Empire. Different political thoughts, architectures, philosophy, and scientific thoughts are the results of this era only. The Hellenistic period of Greece is significantly marked due to the presence of the Alexander the Great. Alexander III was famously known as the Alexander the Great2. He was one of the most military geniuses that the world has ever produced. This Macedonia based military genius taught the whole Greek people about the modern war fare. Like the other Greek people the genius was highly inspired by the divine ambition. The king rewrote the history of the Greece with his indomitable
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Nobel Prize in Literature Essay Once upon a time there was an old woman. Blind but wise. Or was it an old man? A guru, perhaps. Or a griot soothing restless children. I have heard this story, or one exactly like it, in the lore of several cultures. Once upon a time there was an old woman. Blind. Wise. In the version I know the woman is the daughter of slaves, black, American, and lives alone in a small house outside of town. Her reputation for wisdom is without peer and without question. Among her people she is both the law and its transgression. The honor she is paid and the awe in which she is held reach beyond her neighborhood to places far away; to the city where the intelligence of rural prophets is the source of much amusement. One day the woman is visited by some young people who seem to be bent on disproving her clairvoyance and showing her up for the fraud they believe she is. Their plan is simple: they enter her house and ask the one question the answer to which rides solely on her difference from them, a difference they regard as a profound disability: her blindness. They stand before her, and one of them says, Old woman, I hold in my hand a bird. Tell me whether it is living or dead. She does not answer, and the question is repeated. Is the bird I am holding living or dead? Still she doesnt answer. She is blind and cannot see her visitors, let alone what is in their hands. She does not know their color, gender or homeland. She only knows their motive. The old womans silence is so long, the young people have trouble holding their laughter. Finally she speaks and her voice is soft but stern. I dont know, she says. I dont know whether the bird you are holding is dead or alive, but what I do know is that it is in your hands. It is in your hands. Her answer can be taken to mean: if it is dead, you have either found it that way or you have killed it. If it is alive, you can still kill it. Whether it is to stay alive, it is your decision. Whatever the case, it is your responsibility. For parading their power and her helplessness, the young visitors are reprimanded, told they are responsible not only for the act of mockery but also for the small bundle of life sacrificed to achieve its aims. The blind woman shifts attention away from assertions of power to the instrument through which that power is exercised. Speculation on what (other than its own frail body) that bird-in-the-hand might signify has always been attractive to me, but especially so now thinking, as I have been, about the work I do that has brought me to this company. So I choose to read the bird as language and the woman as a practiced writer. She is worried about how the language she dreams in, given to her at birth, is handled, put into service, even withheld from her for certain nefarious purposes. Being a writer she thinks of language partly as a system, partly as a living thing over which one has control, but mostly as agency as an act with consequences. So the question the children put to her: Is it living or dead? is not unreal because she thinks of language as susceptible to death, erasure; certainly imperiled and salvageable only by an effort of the will. She believes that if the bird in the hands of her visitors is dead the custodians are responsible for the corpse. For her a dead language is not only one no long er spoken or written, it is unyielding language content to admire its own paralysis. Like statist language, censored and censoring. Ruthless in its policing duties, it has no desire or purpose other than maintaining the free range of its own narcotic narcissism, its own exclusivity and dominance. However moribund, it is not without effect for it actively thwarts the intellect, stalls conscience, suppresses human potential. Unreceptive to interrogation, it cannot form or tolerate new ideas, shape other thoughts, tell another story, fill baffling silences. Official language smitheryed to sanction ignorance and preserve privilege is a suit of armor polished to shocking glitter, a husk from which the knight departed long ago. Yet there it is: dumb, predatory, sentimental. Exciting reverence in schoolchildren, providing shelter for despots, summoning false memories of stability, harmony among the public. She is convinced that when language dies, out of carelessness, disuse, indifference and absence of esteem, or killed by fiat, not only she herself, but all users and makers are accountable for its demise. In her country children have bitten their tongues off and use bullets instead to iterate the voice of speechlessness, of disabled and disabling language, of language adults have abandoned altogether as a device for grappling with meaning, providing guidance, or expressing love. But she knows tongue-suicide is not only the choice of children. It is common among the infantile heads of state and power merchants whose evacuated language leaves them with no access to what is left of their human instincts for they speak only to those who obey, or in order to force obedience. The systematic looting of language can be recognized by the tendency of its users to forgo its nuanced, complex, mid-wifery properties for menace and subjugation. Oppressive language does more than represent violence; it is violence; does more than represent the limits of knowledge; it limits knowledge. Whether it is obscuring state language or the faux-language of mindless media; whether it is the proud but calcified language of the academy or the commodity driven language of science; whether it is the malign language of law-without-ethics, or language designed for the estrangement of minorities, hiding its racist plunder in its literary cheek it must be rejected, altered and exposed. It is the language that drinks blood, laps vulnerabilities, tucks its fascist boots under crinolines of respectability and patriotism as it moves relentlessly toward the bottom line and the bottomed-out mind. Sexist language, racist language, theistic language all are typical of the policing language s of mastery, and cannot, do not permit new knowledge or encourage the mutual exchange of ideas. The old woman is keenly aware that no intellectual mercenary, nor insatiable dictator, no paid-for politician or demagogue; no counterfeit journalist would be persuaded by her thoughts. There is and will be rousing language to keep citizens armed and arming; slaughtered and slaughtering in the malls, courthouses, post offices, playgrounds, bedrooms and boulevards; stirring, memorializing language to mask the pity and waste of needless death. There will be more diplomatic language to countenance rape, torture, assassination. There is and will be more seductive, mutant language designed to throttle women, to pack their throats like patÃ ©-producing geese with their own unsayable, transgressive words; there will be more of the language of surveillance disguised as research; of politics and history calculated to render the suffering of millions mute; language glamorized to thrill the dissatisfied and bereft into assaulting their neighbors; arrogant pseudo-empirical language crafted to l ock creative people into cages of inferiority and hopelessness. Underneath the eloquence, the glamor, the scholarly associations, however stirring or seductive, the heart of such language is languishing, or perhaps not beating at all if the bird is already dead. She has thought about what could have been the intellectual history of any discipline if it had not insisted upon, or been forced into, the waste of time and life that rationalizations for and representations of dominance required lethal discourses of exclusion blocking access to cognition for both the excluder and the excluded. The conventional wisdom of the Tower of Babel story is that the collapse was a misfortune. That it was the distraction, or the weight of many languages that precipitated the towers failed architecture. That one monolithic language would have expedited the building and heaven would have been reached. Whose heaven, she wonders? And what kind? Perhaps the achievement of Paradise was premature, a little hasty if no one could take the time to understand other languages, other views, other narratives period. Had they, the heaven they imagined might have been found at their feet. Complicated, demanding, yes, but a view of heaven as life; not heaven as post-life. She would not want to leave her young visitors with the impression that language should be forced to stay alive merely to be. The vitality of language lies in its ability to limn the actual, imagined and possible lives of its speakers, readers, writers. Although its poise is sometimes in displacing experience it is not a substitute for it. It arcs toward the place where meaning may lie. When a President of the United States thought about the graveyard his country had become, and said, The world will little note nor long remember what we say here. But it will never forget what they did here, his simple words are exhilarating in their life-sustaining properties because they refused to encapsulate the reality of 600, 000 dead men in a cataclysmic race war. Refusing to monumentalize, disdaining the final word, the precise summing up, acknowledging their poor power to add or detract, his words signal deference to the uncapturability of the life it mourns. It is the deference that moves he r, that recognition that language can never live up to life once and for all. Nor should it. Language can never pin down slavery, genocide, war. Nor should it yearn for the arrogance to be able to do so. Its force, its felicity is in its reach toward the ineffable. Be it grand or slender, burrowing, blasting, or refusing to sanctify; whether it laughs out loud or is a cry without an alphabet, the choice word, the chosen silence, unmolested language surges toward knowledge, not its destruction. But who does not know of literature banned because it is interrogative; discredited because it is critical; erased because alternate? And how many are outraged by the thought of a self-ravaged tongue? Word-work is sublime, she thinks, because it is generative; it makes meaning that secures our difference, our human difference the way in which we are like no other life. We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives. Once upon a time, visitors ask an old woman a question. Who are they, these children? What did they make of that encounter? What did they hear in those final words: The bird is in your hands? A sentence that gestures towards possibility or one that drops a latch? Perhaps what the children heard was Its not my problem. I am old, female, black, blind. What wisdom I have now is in knowing I cannot help you. The future of language is yours. They stand there. Suppose nothing was in their hands? Suppose the visit was only a ruse, a trick to get to be spoken to, taken seriously as they have not been before? A chance to interrupt, to violate the adult world, its miasma of discourse about them, for them, but never to them? Urgent questions are at stake, including the one they have asked: Is the bird we hold living or dead? Perhaps the question meant: Could someone tell us what is life? What is death? No trick at all; no silliness. A straightforward question worthy of the attention of a wise one. An old one. And if the old and wise who have lived life and faced death cannot describe either, who can? But she does not; she keeps her secret; her good opinion of herself; her gnomic pronouncements; her art without commitment. She keeps her distance, enforces it and retreats into the singularity of isolation, in sophisticated, privileged space. Nothing, no word follows her declaration of transfer. That silence is deep, deeper than the meaning available in the words she has spoken. It shivers, this silence, and the children, annoyed, fill it with language invented on the spot. Is there no speech, they ask her, no words you can give us that helps us break through your dossier of failures? Through the education you have just given us that is no education at all because we are paying close attention to what you have done as well as to what you have said? To the barrier you have erected between generosity and wisdom? We have no bird in our hands, living or dead. We have only you and our important question. Is the nothing in our hands something you could not bear to contemplate, to even guess? Dont you remember being young when language was magic without meaning? When what you could say, could not mean? When the invisible was what imagination strove to see? When questions and demands for answers burned so brightly you trembled with fury at not knowing? Do we have to begin consciousness with a battle heroines and heroes like you have already fought and lost leaving us with nothing in our hands except what you have imagined is there? Your answer is artful, but its artfulness embarrasses us and ought to embarrass you. Your answer is indecent in its self-congratulation. A made-for-television script that makes no sense if there is nothing in our hands. Why didnt you reach out, touch us with your soft fingers, delay the sound bite, the lesson, until you knew who we were? Did you so despise our trick, our modus operandi you could not see that we were baffled about how to get your attention? We are young. Unripe. We have heard all our short lives that we have to be responsible. What could that possibly mean in the catastrophe this world has become; where, as a poet said, nothing needs to be exposed since it is already barefaced. Our inheritance is an affront. You want us to have your old, blank eyes and see only cruelty and mediocrity. Do you think we are stupid enough to perjure ourselves again and again with the fiction of nationhood? How dare you talk to us of duty when we stand waist deep in the toxin of your past? You trivialize us and trivialize the bird that is not in our hands. Is there no context for our lives? No song, no literature, no poem full of vitamins, no history connected to experience that you can pass along to help us start strong? You are an adult. The old one, the wise one. Stop thinking about saving your face. Think of our lives and tell us your particularized world. Make up a story. Narrative is radical, creating us at the very moment it is being created. We will not blame you if your reach exceeds your grasp; if love so ignites your words they go down in flames and nothing is left but their scald. Or if, with the reticence of a surgeons hands, your words suture only the places where blood might flow. We know you can never do it properly once and for all. Passion is never enough; neither is skill. But try. For our sake and yours forget your name in the street; tell us what the world has been to you in the dark places and in the light. Dont tell us what to believe, what to fear. Show us belief s wide skirt and the stitch that unravels fears caul. You, old woman, blessed with blindness, can speak the language that tells us what only language can: how to see without pictures. Language alone protects us from the scariness of things with no names. Language alone is meditation. Tell us what it is to be a woman so that we may know what it is to be a man. What moves at the margin. What it is to have no home in this place. To be set adrift from the one you knew. What it is to live at the edge of towns that cannot bear your company. Tell us about ships turned away from shorelines at Easter, placenta in a field. Tell us about a wagonload of slaves, how they sang so softly their breath was indistinguishable from the falling snow. How they knew from the hunch of the nearest shoulder that the next stop would be their last. How, with hands prayered in their sex, they thought of heat, then sun. Lifting their faces as though it was there for the taking. Turning as though there for the taking. They stop at an inn. The driver and his mate go in with the lamp leaving them humming in the dark. The horses void steams into the snow beneath its hooves and its hiss and melt are the envy of the freezing slaves. The inn door opens: a girl and a boy step away from its light. They climb into the wagon bed. The boy will have a gun in three years, but now he carries a lamp and a jug of warm cider. They pass it from mouth to mouth. The girl offers bread, pieces of meat and something more: a glance into the eyes of the one she serves. One helping for each man, two for each woman. And a look. They look back. The next stop will be their last. But not this one. This one is warmed. Its quiet again when the children finish speaking, until the woman breaks into the silence. Finally, she says, I trust you now. I trust you with the bird that is not in your hands because you have truly caught it. Look. How lovely it is, this thing we have done together.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The grounds that the Europeans named the Americas were the home of numerous individuals before Columbus. Having relocated from Asia many years prior, the pre-Columbian Americans spread all around the Western Hemisphere and in the long run made extraordinary developments. Around most eminent of them were the Incas in peru, the Mayas, and the Aztecs in Mexico. In the districts north of what was later named the Rio Grande, the human populace was more modest and the developments less propelled than they were more distant south. Indeed in this way, North American locals made a group of human advancement that flourished and extended. There were numerous individuals living north of Mexico when Columbus arrived. When the European contact, there were numerous locals that recently settled in the Americas. In Peru, the Incas were the biggest realm in America. Likewise were the Mexica and the Mayans in Mexico. Mayans were the first to improve a composed dialect, a numerical framework, logbook, a development farming framework, and exchange tracks. In the northern part of America were the Esk...
Monday, November 11, 2019
CMI LEVEL 5 UNIT 5002 Assignment [pic] Simon Butterfield Table of contents Sectionpage number Introduction3 Be able to identify and select sources of data and information4-5 What is information? 4 Be able to analyse and present information to support decision making6-9 What is Decision Making6 Decision making styles6 Decision making model6 Group Decision Making8 Risks to Group Decision Making8 Decision making tools9 Be able to communicate the results of information analysis and decisions 10-13 Dangers and Barriers11 Methods of Communication11 Improving Communication12 Chairing Meetings13 Reasons for Ineffective Meetings13 Meetings I Attend13 Difficult People14 Negotiation14 DoÃ¢â¬â¢s and DonÃ¢â¬â¢ts of Negotiation14 Closing Statement15 Bibliography15 Introduction The following report is going to explain about decision making in my workplace, it is going to be split into 3 major bodies. Identifying information, analyse the information and communicate the results. Decision making can take time for some decisions to be made, others will take no time at all as we make them every day, unknown to us, every minute of every day we are making management decisions without knowing it. We are going to concentrate on larger decisions to be made, not every day issues, Decision making is all about gathering information, anlysing it, understanding the pros and cons of each path to be taken and deciding which to take to get where you need to go, some steps are easier if shared with others within the team. Be able to identify and select sources of data and information What is information? According to your dictionary online (http://www. yourdictionary. com/data), data can be defined as facts or figures to be processed; evidence, records, statistics, etc. rom which conclusions can be inferred and information in a form suitable for storing and processing by a computer. Data is basically statistics based on information. Data only becomes information when it is processed to be meaningful, processed for a reason and understood by the recipient. Within my establishment I have various possibilities of which information is gained, Most of the information I need to make a decisio n is available fairly easily, this is available on the internet within BAE systems. Lets take a scenario Ã¢â¬â my team has a bank of pipes to fit within the pressure hull of the submarine. The information needed is from isometric and arrangement drawings that show were in the correct place these pipes will go, the drawings are available from DIPS a section that issues all drawings to BAE personnel. There are two types of drawings one is an arrangement and there are isometrics. Arrangement drawings give most of information needed to install the pipes, like how they joint together e. g. lange, weld or screwed fittings ETC, it also shows which pipes connect to each other, within the backing sheets the information given is the corporate part numbers of all identified fittings and things needed to fit the system. The isometrics show each pipe separately, showing the pipes dimensions, bend data and datumÃ¢â¬â¢s giving exact information to the individual pipe. All this information is just the first part of info needed to fit the system, as well as these drawings, othe r information is needed, process instructions on how the best practice to set a pipe up for welding, clipping a grade 1 pipe system ECT. This information is also gained from the internet, from a part called the process library. This information is used to do the job as that is the way it should be done and there is no deviation from this, it should be followed to the letter to get it the job done right. As well as the process instructions, as a technical team we have to use standards, thease are from standards of fitting clips down to standards of shock clearance. Some are written and some are Pictorial see below [pic] All of the information needed is on the BAE internet. All the standards and process instructions are freely available, for everyone to use. To do the scenario as mentioned at the beginning, all of the above information is selected and used as it is part of the process flow and what is needed to do the job correctly. The drawings that are received from DIPS are subject to different classifications, most if not all are restricted due to there content, every employee has signed the official secrets act before being employed within BAE submarine solutions and know that thease are to stay within the company and not to be distributed to outside sources. Once thease drawings have been used they need to go back to the place of issue to be disposed of in the correct way. Be able to analyse and present information to support decision making What is Decision Making? Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among variations. Every decision making process produces a final choice (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Decision_making). Good decision making is an essential skill for career success generally. If you can learn to make timely and well-considered decisions, then you can often earn well-deserved success. However, if you make poor decisions you are more likely to be in trouble and not asked again. Decision making styles There are 3 main decision making styles which include the following: 1. Autocratic Ã¢â¬â decisions made predominantly by the manager 2. Democratic Ã¢â¬â decisions based on discussions by the manager and others involved 3. Participative Ã¢â¬â these are decisions made predominantly by those Below is a decision making model showing steps to be taken [pic] Step 1: Identify the decision to be made. You realize that a decision must be made. You then go through an internal process of trying to define clearly the nature of the decision you must make. This first step is a very important one Step 2: Gather relevant information. Most decisions require collecting pertinent information. The real trick in this step is to know what information is needed, the best sources of this information, and how to go about getting it. Some information must be sought from within yourself through a process of self-assessment; other information must be sought from outside yourself-from books, people, and a variety of other sources. This step, therefore, involves both internal and external Ã¢â¬Å"workÃ¢â¬ . Step 3: Identify alternatives. Through the process of collecting information you will probably identify several possible paths of action, or alternatives. You may also use your imagination and information to construct new alternatives. In this step of the decision-making process, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives Step 4: Weigh evidence. In this step, you draw on your information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives to the end. You must evaluate whether the need identified in Step 1 would be helped or solved through the use of each alternative. In going through this difficult internal process, you begin to favour certain alternatives which appear to have higher potential for reaching your goal. Eventually you are able to place the alternatives in priority order, based upon your own value system. Step 5: Choose among alternatives. Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative which seems to be best suited to you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives. Your choice in Step 5 may very likely be the same or similar to the alternative you placed at the top of your list at the end of Step 4 Step 6: Take action. You now take some positive action which begins to implement the alternative you chose in Step 5 Step 7: Review decision and consequences. In the last step you experience the results of your decision and evaluate whether or not it has Ã¢â¬Å"solvedÃ¢â¬ the need you identified in Step 1. If it has, you may stay with this decision for some period of time. If the decision has not resolved the identified need, you may repeat certain steps of the process in order to make a new decision. You may, for example, gather more detailed or somewhat different information or discover additional alternatives on which to base your decision Group Decision Making The benefits and problems with group decision making below: Benefits |Problems | |Pooling ideas together |Conflict could arise through disagreement | |Covering all eventualities |Too many options on offer | |Improving the likelihood of acceptance at |Decisions could be slowed down | |high levels as the whole team have | | |agreed | | |Ability to build on various suggestions |Accountability as no one person is | | |responsible | |Prevent rushing into decisions that may | | |be regretted later | | |Give more scope for creativity | | An example of group decision making, would be in my IWT (integrated work team) meeting, if an issue came up regarding a piece of work within the plan that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be fit, we, as a team would talk about it, planners team leaders and myself would make a group decision weather to move it to the right in the plan, split it up or add some more kit to the activity. Risks to Group Decision Making Some managers find it difficult to make decisions, especially if there is a high level of risk involved in them. Some risks are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Making unpopular decisions or getting it wrong can leave you open to criticism by others Ã¢â¬ ¢ Getting it wrong causes other problems for some people because they like to be liked by their colleagues. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Some decisions will have a financial penalty such as going over budget or losing money. To minimize risk you need to gather information that may give you some indication of what might go wrong. The riskier the decisions the more information required. Main Risk |Minimising Risks | |Something will prevent you implementing |Get quality information on which to base | |your decision |your decision | |The risk that your decision will not |Be rigorous with your decisions making | |produce the effects you expect | | | |Always have a contingency plan | | |DonÃ¢â¬â¢t introduce risks by delaying the | | |implementation of your decision | Decision making tools In order to make effective decisions there are some tools and techniques that may help. Some decisions making tools I use include the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brainstorming Ã¢â¬â this helps generate lots of ideas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mind Mapping Ã¢â¬â this is a tool I use after I have carried out a brain storm. It is on the mind map I can organise my ideas better and allow structure to decision. These tools are good when we need to do something different, as most of our work is mapped out for us a shown on page 4, when we have a challenging decision to make brain storming is useful to get ideas down and evaluate each one separately finding its advantages and disadvantages. Be able to communicate the results of information analysis and decisions In business no matter how hard people try there are always barriers that can prevent us from communicating effectively. Organisations that fail to do well often suggest that their failure is due to the inability to working around the barriers. Communication is so important in business and all barriers should try to be worked around to ensure an effective, efficient business. To communicate affectively the language should be understandable to the receiver and in a format that is easy to translate. Information should only be transmitted to those who really need in and at a time that would be most useful. Communication is the sharing between groups of two or more people to reach a common understanding. Communication involves making sure you communicate clearly so others understand your ideas, suggestions, instructions and requests. Communication allows the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding your work situation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quickly making decisions and solving problems Ã¢â¬ ¢ Respond to situations as they change Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improve relationships between others The model shown below is illustrates effective communication: Sender Ã¢â¬â this is the person or group wishing to share information Ã¢â¬ ¢ Message Ã¢â¬â the information that a sender wants to share Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encoding Ã¢â¬â translating a message into understandable symbols or language Ã¢â¬ ¢ Noise Ã¢â¬â anything that hampers any stage of the communication process Ã¢â¬ ¢ Receiver Ã¢â¬â the person or group for which a message is intended Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medium Ã¢â¬â the pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decoding Ã¢â¬â interpreting and trying to make sense of a message [pic] [pic] Dangers and Barriers Some experts claim that people like to spend 85% of your time engaged in some form of communication and that ineffective communication damages organisational performance. There are many barriers to communication which include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Noise 13 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assuming the receiver has the information Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assuming the receiver understands the message Ã¢â¬ ¢ The receiver assuming that the sender meant rather than checking Ã¢â¬ ¢ The receiver deliberately misinterprets the message because they do not like its content The sender deliberately sends a misleading message Communication within BAE tends to contain jargon. Jargon is words or abbreviat ions that are rarely understood by people that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t familiar with or that are new to the company. E mails tend to be sent around camp that are cascades of information from the senior management team to the supervisors and then to everyone else. Some of the information contained in the e mails have abbreviations that not everyone understands or that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t explained properly. Trust is so important within BAE. It is difficult to communicate with a person if you feel you canÃ¢â¬â¢t trust them especially if the information is sensitive. The senior management team sometimes have very strong views and ideas about certain aspects of the business. This can become problematic if they chose not to listen to the thoughts of people working on the next level. By not listening and taking things on board this may cause a bit of tension and unhappiness within the work force. Methods of Communication Spoken methods of communication involve people actually speaking and often supplies you with an instant response. In some circumstances it is possible to see the person you are communication with for example in a meeting. The most common methods of spoken communication I use at work and their advantages and disadvantages are detailed in the table below. Verbal Method |Advantages |Disadvantages | |Telephone |I can talk to someone |Unfortunately on the phone | | |directly and get an answer |the person needs to be at | | |right away. |their desk to take the call I canÃ¢â¬â¢t see the | | | |personÃ¢â¬â¢s | | | |face when I tal k to them. | | | I canÃ¢â¬â¢t gauge their body | | | |language and facial expressions. | |Meetings |Allows me to provide |I need to be chairing the | | |information to a few |meeting to ensure I get | | |people at the same time |what I need from the | | |rather than individually |meeting | | |which saves time. It people to discuss the |Lack of attendance by key | | |information together in an |players can hold up the | | |open forum |decision making process | | |Decisions can be made by |Meeting can over run | | |more than one person |which means decisions | | | |may be rushed. |Face to Face |This gives me both verbal |I need to locate the person | | |and non verbal feedback |before I can talk to them | | |immediately |The person may allow | | |I can get undivided |themselves to be side | | |attention from the person |tracked by other things if it | | |There is no details of what |is not a formal meeting | | |happened when the face | | | |to face discussion took | | | |place. | | Improving Communication Ways in which we can improve communication between each other are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the detail and content in information sent out so that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t get confused and understand the information correctly Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ask people in meetings as things come up if they are all happy and understand Improve working relationships with line managers so that a trust can be built Ã¢â¬ ¢ Listen to and discuss issues and problems with the senior management team Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encourage feedback to the senior management team by all staff Chairing Meetings What are meetings? According to the online dictionary, meetings can be defined as an assembly or gathering of people, as for a business, social, or religious purpose. Advantages and Disadvantages of Meetings There are many advantages and disadvantages to meetings, which are outline below: |Advantages |Disadvantages | |You an get ideas and exchange information with lots of people at |Wasting valuable time that could be used | |once |better elsewhere | |You can make decisions |Costing a lot of money to get people together | |People can join in |A way of managers avoiding difficult | | |decisions | |You can get to know people better |Assign to already overworked people | |You can get people to work together | | | You can promote team spirit | | Reasons for Ineffective Meetings Meeting are often considered to be ineffective for the following reasons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ No agenda is produced so people donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what is going Ã¢â¬ ¢ This tends to lead to meetings running over time Ã¢â¬ ¢ People are often unprepared Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nothing particularly interesting gets decided upon Meetings I Attend The meetings I attend are: IWT Ã¢â¬â this is where I chair the meeting to look forward into the plan to iron out any issues within my team, there is a wide variety of personnel there from planners, team leaders, engineering, materials and projects, from this meeting people will get issued with actions for them to fulfill. 3-4 BUTT meeting Ã¢â¬â this is chaired by my area manager to discuss our next milestone when we combine unit 3 to unit 4 of the submarine, we discuss issues that arise and that may impact on not doing our planned work. Difficult People If there is someone that has an issue that has arisen from the meeting that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t specific but they want to talk about it there and then I ask them to talk to me off line because it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t relevant to all at the meeting. By doing this I can stick to my agenda timings so as not to overrun. If one or two people star arguing about something I ask simply say we are wasting time and ask a new question to someone else in the meeting to change focus. Negotiation The process of negotiation has traditionally been described as hard bargaining and often is based on hidden agendas and power struggles. These days there is a partnership approach based on understanding and trust with the objective of obtaining a win-win situation where both parties are satisfied. In order to negotiate successfully, the very first thing to do is write down a plan or an agenda with clear objectives but be aware that negotiations rarely follow to plan. Other things to consider are: How you might react to the other partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have an ideal outcome or position Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make sure that there is a trustworthy atmosphere Ã¢â¬â this just helps Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ensure the relevant people are there DoÃ¢â¬â¢s and DonÃ¢â¬â¢ts of Negotiation |DoÃ¢â¬â¢s |DonÃ¢â¬â¢ts | |Start with friendly introductions |Interrupt the other person | |Listen actively |Reveal your walkway position | |Be prepared to ompromise |Talk too much or too little | |Be prepared to take a break |Make it personal | |Talk solutions not problems |Ignore the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view | |Ask open questions |Be afraid to walk away | |Change the package not the price |Accept something you will regret later | Closing Statement There a many ways to gain information make decisions on it and then communicate it out, a couple of easy ways is to Ã¢â¬â gain all information facts and figures, get as many people to decide who and what is relevant and communicate it in the most sutible form as possible so everyone can understand what decision has been made or being communicated. Bibliography Online Dictionary http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Decision_making http://www. direct. gov. uk/en/RightsAndResponsibilities/DG_10028507 Cmi 5002 1. Understanding the links and differences between management and leadership 1. 1 Discuss the concept of leaders as effective managers Leadership and management go hand in hand but is not the same thing, but are linked and compliment each other. There has been debate about the difference between leadership and management. With some believing there is no distinction, while others that they should be separated in two defined roles. A common definition is: Management is about the day to day running of a function and getting the right people and resources in the right place with a focus upon implementation.Leadership is about creating a vision for that function and gaining peoples commitment by strategic direction. (NHSBT 5013 Workshop booklet) Effective management deals with resources, finances, time management and the coordination and control over these elements. Managers set goals and focus on reaching their targets. Have good organizational skills and will place people in roles to ge t the job the task complete. Have detailed planning taking into account adverse events that could prevent them completing task or achieving target. If the outcome gives worse results than expected an effective manager will look to provide a solution.Effective leadership deals with the people their opinions, behaviour and attitude. They will inspire and engage people to follow them and vision. Focus is on building relationships with people around them, can be an effective part of team and lead it at the same. Effective leaders teach others, learn themselves and are able to admit mistakes righting wrongs and apologising quickly. They can adapt to issues and problems if they arise, confronting reality and issues head on. Leaders will develop trust and subsequently is able to practise accountability, holding themselves and others accountable along with responsibility for results.How managers and leaders motivate their people to work or follow them is one of the main differences. By defi nition managers have subordinates and have a transactional style. The manager telling them what to do and with reward staff will do as asked. Where as leaders have followers, and following is voluntary. Managers plan details, focus on objectives, targets and managing the work. Manager tells and looks for and wants results, leader sells the idea or vision looking for achievement. With managers result focused, short term results can be high.However longer term, without development, motivated and inspired staff there will be a lack of innovation. Ultimately the team or organisation will be static and their performance will never excel. An example of this from NHSBT: 2008 new systems and processes were implemented with limited input from users (shop floor). Results improved for a short term. However there was no continuous improvement, development, innovation or feeling of ownership. Staff and donor (customer) satisfaction, motivation dropped with targets and objectives not reached.Alte rnatively without a management style or focus, day to day performance and results can suffer with only longer term vision strategy focused upon. 1. 2 Discuss the concept of leaders as effective managers Leadership fundamentals: Ã¢â¬ ¢Have a clear vision or purpose of the future Ã¢â¬ ¢Lead through the change to reach that vision Ã¢â¬ ¢Shows commitment, loyalty and enthusiasm for the organisation. And is able to generate these same qualities in their people. Ã¢â¬ ¢Listens to their people Ã¢â¬ ¢Empowers staff and creates confidence for them to perform their role but also for them to explore how to perform better.Majority of leaders in organisations are also in managerial roles. Having an understanding and being able to perform aspects of both roles can be advantageous as managers and supervisors need leadership abilities. Managerial style is good for task achievement, setting goals, focusing on the processes. For this reason, managers to be successful leaders would have to develop a style that is not natural for them. Moving from transactional to situational style, using supportive behaviour, knowing the team and staff motivators.If managers cannot adapt a leadership style when required then staff will become unengaged and have low morale. Not recognising their own role in the organisation or the vision of organisation and where it wants to be. Managers are often seen as risk-averse and opportunities can be missed. Leaders will not rule out opportunities because of barriers and will consider risks to overcome these barriers and get things done. It is seen as easier to acquire managerial skills as they are based on processes and real situations that can be seen. Leadership skills require development of personal qualities which can be hard to quantify.An effective manager is respected for the role they play but an effective leader is often remembered long after they or their people are no longer in their roles. 1. 3 Evaluate the balance needed between the dema nds of management and the demands of leadership. Have a clear focus on vision and aims. Understand where the organisation/team is and wants to be. Evaluate what needs to change i. e. NHSBT efficiency with cost of blood unit to hospitals need to be reduced. Could the change be in the culture of the team or of the organisation? Analysis if the organisation, team or people are currently in the position to adapt to change.Do they have the commitment, motivation and drive. PESTLE analysis is a tool that can be used to help evaluate the demands of management and leadership needed for the organisation. Help to make decisions and understand the wider environment in which they operate. By understanding these environments it is possible maximise opportunities and minimise risks. PESTLE stands for Ã¢â¬â Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, and Environmental. Using this tool as part of decision making process helps to evaluate styles required, for example: Persuasion Ã¢â ¬â Tell or Sell Commitment or ControlProactive or Reactive Approach Ã¢â¬â Sets direction or plans details Achievement or results Knowing yourself, people, organisation and factors that influence the task, team or individual will enable the correct balance to be made. An organisation requires both effective management and effective leadership to be successful, this can be difficult to find, but these attributes can sometimes be found in the same person. 2. Understand leadership principles that support organisational values. 2. 1Evaluate the role of the leader in contributing to the creation of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, and in its communication to others.A leader has a vision or has same beliefs in meeting the organisations vision. Has the drive and commitment to move their vision forward despite often encountering barriers. Has integrity and inspires trust in that their people follow as they believe it is the right thing to do. A leader innovates, develops, positively en couraging people to do it right and better. Leader will understand and be clear on the vision. Understands where organisation and people are. Considers capabilities and realism, especially with resources such as people time and finances.Leader can use Situational Leadership style (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership model), developing people or organisation through stages depending on starting point and maturity (S1 immature through to S4 maturity). (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership model), S1 Ã¢â¬â Directing telling S2 Ã¢â¬â Selling S3 Ã¢â¬â Participating S4 Ã¢â¬â Delegating Communicating the vision, the leader will enthuse their people to work towards the goal. Will listen and consult, conveying their ideas, but also encouraging ideas and innovation. Review and revise if required on a regular basis to check understanding.Will tailor communications and actions as they understand people and their motivators. Motivate all to contribute, encourage and su pport to achieve their best and deliver results with continuous improvement. 2. 2Evaluate how personal energy, self Ã¢â¬âbelief and commitment impact on leadership styles Personal energy Ã¢â¬â Channelled correctly into motivating and being enthusiastic about the vision. Can lead by example with this positive energy. Energy helps with the inner drive to reach goals and a determination to overcome barriers. If not channelled correctly can be seen as stressful (nervous energy).Balance required so the leader can be seen as driven but calm and considered, evaluating and listening to staff. Personal energy, commitment and self belief enable leaders to tackle issues that others may not see or want to tackle themselves. Self belief, commitment and inner drive gives and shows the strength and perseverance that they will and can move vision forward. Communicate this self belief so people follow because they believe it is the right thing to do and not ego driven. Self belief needs to sho w confidence in self and organisation but with humility so not seen as arrogance without chance of compromise or willingness to listen.Self belief often shows an honesty, allowing people to see where the leaders stands. Commitment and resilience to persevere, commitment should be realistic but unrelenting. Keep commitments, say what you are are going to do, then do what you have said will be done. Self belief and commitment allows a leader to be own person and to do the right thing. A leader will also encourage their people to be their self, develop self and their ideas. 2. 3Identify how empowerment and trust through ethical leadership impact on organisational practice.Ethical leadership Ã¢â¬â organisation to balance its vision/purpose with needs and feelings of staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders and local communities. Responsibility for environment be it through sustainability, wildlife, natural resources, culture, heritage, fair trade. Acting with and showing integrity a nd transparency. Organisation needs to consult with these groups, giving them influence and empowerment in direction of organisation. Modern times, society and opinion has changed where public not only demand a high quality service but also ethical principles.Leaders, along with traditional business aims, need to create a framework of trust to the general public. Organisations cannot be seen as disreputable (i. e. , banking crisis), unfair to suppliers, lack of care or responsibility to staff. Leaders need to understand altruistic reasons Ã¢â¬â we do good things, so to shop or use our services is a good thing. This understanding helps to shape policies and strategy. Leaders should demonstrate respect, care and show that they care for others (be they staff, customers, suppliers or other stakeholders). Showing dignity to people and all roles.Ethical leadership can create transparency for an organisation, telling the truth in a way so people can easily understand and nurture a cultu re of being open and authentic. 3. Be able to understand and apply leadership styles to achieve organisational objectives. 3. 1 Distinguish between two different leadership styles The approach using Hersey and Blanchard (as seen in 2. 1) situational leadership styles model, is that there are four main leadership styles: Ã¢â¬ ¢Directing Ã¢â¬ ¢Coaching Ã¢â¬ ¢Supporting Ã¢â¬ ¢Delegating Situational leadership is choosing the right style for the right people.Not just using one style but changing to suit maturity of people and team and the situation. Directing (Telling) Style This is generally one-way communication from the leader. Telling exactly what is to be done by individuals, how to do it , where to do it and why they should do it. This style centres on getting the task done. Delegating The leader is still involved with decisions, but responsibilities and processes are handed to team and individuals. The leader will monitor and evaluate progress. Style centres on the people/tea m and development to work independently.Both styles are effective in used in the correct situation and with the right people: Directing style is often used with new staff or teams, they may lack all skills required and are unable to take responsibility for the task. However they are willing and enthusiastic to work at task. Delegating Ã¢â¬â As people or team become experienced and able to do the task. They become comfortable in their own ability to perform role well. They are then also able to take responsibility for this task. 3. 2 Assess the practical value of a leadership style to a manager in chieving organisational objectives Leadership style has a direct impact on organisation and its success. Leaders shape the culture, values and motivation within organisation. A leader does not have to be at the top of the organisation with leadership styles and qualities able to seen throughout. Successful leaders no matter what level all have one thing in common. They influence those ar ound them to gain maximum benefits from their resources. Important not to limit or restrict leadership style, being able to adapt styles to where your staff, team, organisation are, is key. 60 feedback is an excellent tool to help understand where you are and any development needs they may want to strengthen. Strengthening links between leaders/managers and staff. Helping to improve understanding of staff/team needs and their perception of their leader/manager. A self awareness to understand yourself and how you react to people and how they react to you is required. Some individuals will thrive on being given targets and tasks, while others may require the metaphorical, arm around them to feel supported.Developing self and people will give empowerment, higher motivation and innovation, creating engagement through listening and consultation. Questioning style allows staff to find and be guided to find own solutions. Play to strengths while looking to work on and improve weaknesses. A leader using a transformational style will look to change those they lead. This style does not simply use personality (charismatic) or reward and bargaining (transactional) to persuade people. Transformational style will use knowledge, expertise and a vision to engage with followers and gain buy in from followers that often remains long after the leader has left.Transformational leadership style allows followers to develop, change and to adapt. This embeds a culture of staff looking to innovate and change, allowing the organisation to be prepared and unfazed to any future changes, adapting as the social environment changes. 3. 3 Discuss situational variables likely to influence the choice of a leadership style A leadership style required can be determined by variables other than the maturity of staff, team or organisation. PESTLE analysis (Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental) is often used to evaluate the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental influe nces.It is then possible to audit the current environment and expected future changes, putting the organisation in a strong position to adapt to change or looking at taking advantages over competitors. To make decisions and plan for the future, organisations need to understand the environments in which they operate. By understanding these environments it is possible to maximise opportunities and minimise any threats to the organisation. Understanding the risks associated with the market they are operating in, its growth or decline and the need for the product or service.Leaders can then evaluate potential and direction of organisation. An example recently of where leadership and not adapting or taking a leadership style within an organisation, has failed is JessopÃ¢â¬â¢s. By not adapting (using a transformational or Situational style) and understanding changes in the differing environments and factors around them. They failed to change and develop, too many high street shops with overheads and failed to take advantage of on line services which its competitors had done (Technology).Timescales in which task or objectives are required to be met will also impact on leadership a style. A quick implementation or turn around may generally require a more directing approach to meet a short term goal. Where as a long term strategic change will require an engaging leadership style. Inspiring others to follow and buy into the vision and making this a shared vision, supporting and developing individuals while also consulting and evaluating progress, moving forward together.